Daily Hot Topic
Topic : Women in India’s Unincorporated Sector (as per Annual Survey of Unincorporated Sector Enterprises (ASUSE)2022-23)
GS-1 Mains  : Society


Key Facts & Figures:

  • Share of Women Workers:
    • Increased marginally from 25.52% (2021-22) to 25.63% (2022-23).
    • Higher in Southern States (Telangana – 41%, Others >30%) and some Eastern States.
    • Lower in Western, Northern & Central States.
  • Women Proprietors:
    • 54% of establishments in Manufacturing sector are female-owned.

Nature of Unincorporated Sector:

  • Wide range of jobs – low to high skill, fixed locations to mobile work.
  • Significant female workforce across various industries and activities.

Challenges Faced by Women:

  • Unpaid Family Work: Women dominate this category across all states.
  • Low Income: Skill gaps and weak bargaining power lead to low wages.
  • Gender Pay Gap: Women earn less than men for similar work.
  • Lack of Social Security: Limited access to health insurance, pensions etc.
  • Informal Work: Absence of formal contracts increases vulnerability.

Government Initiatives:

  • Skill Development Programs:
    • Women’s ITIs, National Vocational Training Institutes, Regional Vocational Training Institutes.
    • Skill India Mission for skill development and vocational training.
    • National Skill Development Policy promoting women’s participation.
    • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Kendras for training and apprenticeship.
  • Entrepreneurship Support:
    • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana for micro-loans.
    • Stand Up India for loans to women entrepreneurs.
    • Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme.


  • Women’s contribution to the unincorporated sector is significant.
  • Empowering women is essential for economic justice and inclusive growth.
  • Addressing issues like equal pay, safe working conditions, and access to education & training is crucial.
  • Recognizing women’s contributions and tackling their challenges will create a more equitable and prosperous society.

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