11th Sep Prelims Sure Shot – For UPSC/IAS Exam

Sedition in India

What is Sec 124 A of IPC?

  • Sec 124-A deals with sedition, and was introduced by the British colonial government in 1870.
  • It says that the act of Sedition is to bring hatred or contempt towards the Government established by law in India.
  • In this case, the punishment may be of imprisonment for life and fine, or imprisonment for 3 years and fine.
  • It was actually brought to suppress the freedom struggle prevalent then.
  • Presently, section 124 A IPC defines sedition as an act that brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise.

Mudra Scheme

  • The government set up a set up a Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Bank which would be responsible for regulating and refinancing all Micro-finance Institutions (MFI).
  • The primary product of MUDRA will be refinance for lending to micro businesses/units under the aegis of the Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana.
  • MUDRA Bank has been established by government with a Refinance corpus of Rs.20, 000 crore, and credit guarantee corpus of Rs.3000 crore.
  • The products would be covered under three categories that are as follows:
  • Shishu: covering loans up to Rs. 50,000/-
  • Kishor: covering loans above Rs. 50,000/- and up to Rs. 5 Lakh
  • Tarun: covering loans above Rs. 5 Lakh and up to Rs. 10 Lakh
  • It is to be noted that at least 60% of loans shall be disbursed under Shishu category and remaining for Kishor and Tarun categories.
  • All commercial banks (Private or Public), RRB, Cooperative Bank or other Micro Finance Institutions are eligible for refinance under PM Mudra Yojana.
  • Collateral Security: Banks have been mandated not to insist for collateral security in the case of loans up to 10 Lakh extended to the units in the Micro Small Enterprises sector.

Soil Erosion

  • Soil is the mixture of organic and inorganic material. Due to the presence of microorganism the soil becomes fertile. Soil erosion is the removal of topsoil faster than the soil formation.
  • There are many causes of soil erosion- Natural Causes– Excessive Rainfall, Speed of the Wind, Land Slide, Disasters like Floods and Droughts. Anthropogenic Causes like Mining, Deforestation, Overgrazing, Jhoom cultivation and negative impact of Green Revolution leads to the soil erosion as well.

Swine flu or H1N1

  • Swine flu is an infection caused by swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus is common throughout among the pig population worldwide. It infects the respiratory tract of the pigs.
  • Transmission of virus from pigs to humans is not common. Usually, the virus spreads among pigs only. Transmission of the virus from pigs to human not always causes human flu, but if it causes it is called zoonotic swine flu.
  • People who are in regular contact with pigs are most vulnerable for this infection.


  • Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
  • It is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. In addition to its stimulant effects, mephedrone produces side effects, of which bruxism is the most common.
  • The metabolism of mephedrone has been studied in rats and humans and the metabolites can be detected in urine after usage.


Two New Species of Ginger discovered

  • Scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) have discovered two new species of Zingiber, commonly referred to as ginger, from Nagaland. While Zingiber perenense has been discovered from the Peren district of Nagaland, Zingiber dimapurense was found in the Dimapur district of the State.
  • Details of both discoveries were published in two peer-reviewed journals earlier this year. Of the two species, Zingiber dimapurense is taller in size, with leafy shoots measuring 90-120 cm high, whereas the leafy shoots of Zingiber perenense reach up to 70 cm in height.

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