The Hindu 12th July editorials mains sure shot
Question- Does the Labour Force Survey portray that jobless growth has become even systemic? Explain ( 200 Words)
Context- The Survey
- The findings of the latest employment survey or the Periodic Labour Force Survey (2017-18) has raised two big issues-
- Shrinking share of labour force and,
- Rising unemployment.
- The main concerns arise from the findings that the labour force participation rate (i.e. % of people working or seeking job who are more than 15 years of age) in 2012 was 55.5% and in 2018 it was only 49.7%
- So, we can say that there is an absolute decline in the number of workers from 467.7 million i 2012 to 461.5 million in 2018.
- The survey counted both who are self-employed and those who have wage employment.
- Within the category they also included those who are engaged in ‘unpaid family labour’.
- The findings definitely show that there has been an increase in unemployment. But this has to be seen from 3 points- location, gender and educated unemployment.
- From the perspective of location, the rate of unemployment among rural men was 5.8% and rural women at 3.8%.
- From the gender angle the highest rate of unemployment of a ‘severe’ nature was among urban women at 10.8%; followed by urban men at 7.1%
- If we look at the issue of educated unemployment i.e. unemployment among those with at least a secondary school certificate, it is at 11.4% compared to previous survey’s figure of 4.9%.
- The survey also showed that the level of unemployment rates go up as level of education go up.
- This might be because educated persons in general have aspirations for specific jobs and hence likely to go through a longer waiting period than their less-educated counterparts.
- But the country’s inability to absorb educated into gainful employment is both an economic loss as well as a demoralising experience both among unemployed and those enrolling themselves for higher education.
- But the overall conclusion is that the trend of ‘jobless growth’ which was till now confined to the organised sector has now spread to other sectors of the economy making it more generalised.
- To re-examine the linkage between growth and employment.
- For the government to not remain silent but to actively discuss it and make it central to development strategies.
- The stringent labour laws have to be reformed. And presently the government is working in this direction.
- The education system needs to be restructured where emphasis is given on creating desired skill sets.
- The entrepreneurial instincts of people have to be encouraged.
- Job intensive sectors have to be promoted.
- Schemes like MUDRA scheme should be expanded as it can play a great role in expansion of MSME sector that has a potential to create more jobs.
- The government needs to keep working on enhancing ease of doing business in India to attract more investment.
The Hindu Editorials 13th July 2019 Mains Sure Shot
Question- Analyse the draft National Education Policy (NEP) and suggest the way ahead.(200 words)
(The critical aspects of the NEP have already been discussed two times earlier.)
Context- The draft NEP, 2019
- The draft NEP was prepared by a committee headed by Dr. D. Kasturirangan.
The key provisions are-
- The policy focuses on making the education system accessible, equitable i.e. fair and reasonable, affordable, accountable and improving the overall quality of education in the country.
- It specifically focuses on the early childhood education, especially the curriculum of the Early Childhood Care and education or ECCE which concerns the pre-schoolers.
- It also proposes the extension of Right to Education to cover all children from 3 to 18years of age. At present it covers students till the age of 18years.
- It further divides K-12 (i.e. kindergarten to grade 12) into Foundational Stage (3-8 years), Preparatory Stage (8-11 years), Middle Stage (11-14 years) and Secondary Stage (14-18 years).
- So, it redraws the schooling system on a 5+3+3+4 formula.
- The draft also proposes restructuring of schools into school complexes. This jas already been initiated in CBSE schools.
- But there has been no hard separation of learning areas in terms of curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular areas.
- There has also been a focus on Teacher Education and improving the quality of educators.
- A four-year integrated stage-specific B.Ed. programme has also been presented.
- Also emphasis has been given restructuring the technical and medical education in the country, along with exit-examination of medical professionals.
- There is also stress on vocational training.
- Outcome based teaching and learning model in elementary schools.
- Spending 1.5% of GDP on research and development.
- Finally, the proposal of continuing with the 3-language formula has been reinforced in the draft NEP.
- It has reiterated its commitment to providing a renewed focus on the Indian languages from and early and formative years.
- The draft lacks operational details.
- It does not after clear insight into how the policy will be funded.
- It is a welcome step that the government had kept the draft open for public review.
- The provisions of the policy are welcoming but now the government needs to focus on how it will be implemented.
- It will also have to ensure that the policy does not face litigation, state resistance and operational challenges on the ground.