13th sep.2019 Prelims Sure Shot 


Water found for first time on potentially habitable planet

  • K2-18b is now the only planet orbiting a star outside the Solar System known to have both water and temperatures that could be potentially habitable
  • Astronomers have for the first time discovered water in the atmosphere of an exoplanet with Earth-like temperatures that could support life as we know it.
  • K2-18b, which is eight times the mass of Earth, is now the only planet orbiting a star outside the Solar System, or ‘exoplanet’, known to have both water and temperatures that could be potentially habitable.
  • The planet orbits the cool dwarf star K2-18, which is about 110 light years from Earth in the Leo constellation.


Tax Evasion

  • Tax evasion is the term for the efforts by individuals, corporate, trusts and other entities to evade taxes by illegal means.
  • It is the deliberate, misrepresentation or concealment of the true state of their affairs to the tax authorities to reduce their tax liability.
  • All the tax evasion leading to creation of black money and social evils is harmful to the society.

Ways of Tax Evasion in India

  • Smuggling, Evasion of Sales and Value Added Tax, Evasion of Income Tax, Evasion of Wealth Tax, Evasion of Customs Duty and Evasion of Excise Duty. Also, officials take bribery and help in making misrepresentations and fabricated financial statements instead of reporting to tax authorities.
  • Evader wilfully fails to file return, submits false returns, and submits false certificates to get deductions. Exemptions and claim low income, charging personal expenses to revenue, fails to pay dues within due date and so on to evade tax.


Fact check: Isaac Newton discovered gravity, not Einstein.

  • Union Minister Piyush Goyal on Thursday (12th September, 2019) said that people should not indulge in Maths to calculate GDP and know about the economy, saying that Maths did not help Albert Einstein discover gravity.

Albert Einstein

  • Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist, best known for his Special and General Theory of Relativity and the concept of mass-energy equivalence expressed by the famous equation, E = mc2. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 “for his services to theoretical physics and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect” and he made some essential contributions to the early development of quantum theory.

Isaac Newton

  • Newton’s three laws of motion set the foundation for modern classical mechanics. His discovery of the gravitational force gave man the ability to predict movements of celestial objects, while simultaneously validating Kepler’s laws and the heliocentric Copernican model of the solar system. His co-discovery of calculus provided a potent mathematical tool, aiding the precise analytical treatment of the physical world.


Eklavya Model Residential Schools

  • EMRS is a Government of India scheme for model residential school for Indian tribals (Scheduled Tribes, ST) across India.

Objectives of EMRS:

  • Comprehensive physical, mental and socially relevant development of all students enrolled in each and every EMRS. Students will be empowered to be change agent, beginning in their school, in their homes, in their village and finally in a larger context.
  • Focus differentially on the educational support to be made available to those in Standards XI and XII, and those in standards VI to X, so that their distinctive needs can be met,
  • Support the annual running expenses in a manner that offers reasonable remuneration to the staff and upkeep of the facilities.
  • Support the construction of infrastructure that provides education, physical, environmental and cultural needs of student life.


Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana

  • The scheme is voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years.
  • A monthly pension of Rs. 3000/– will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 years.
  • The farmers will have to make a monthly contribution of Rs.55 to Rs.200, depending on their age of entry, in the Pension Fund till they reach the retirement date i.e. the age of 60 years.
  • The Central Government will also make an equal contribution of the same amount in the pension fund.
  • The spouse is also eligible to get a separate pension of Rs.3000/- upon making separate contributions to the Fund.
  • The Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) shall be the Pension Fund Manager and responsible for Pension pay out.
  • In case of death of the farmer before retirement date, the spouse may continue in the scheme by paying the remaining contributions till the remaining age of the deceased farmer.
  • If the spouse does not wish to continue, the total contribution made by the farmer along with interest will be paid to the spouse.
  • In case of default in making regular contributions, the beneficiaries are allowed to regularize the contributions by paying the outstanding dues along with prescribed interest.


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