17th September 2019 : Prelims Notes ( Prelims Sure Shot)


Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA)

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978.
  • The Act was introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”.
  • The law allows the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
  • The PSA allows for administrative detention for up to two years “in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State”, and for administrative detention up to one year where “any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
  • Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates.


Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya

Malaria –  

Caused by the infectious Plasmodium

Spread: – Female Anopheles mosquitoes deposit parasite sporozoites into the skin of a human host.

Malaria is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Despite huge progress in tackling the disease, there are still 212 million new cases of malaria and 430,000 malaria-related deaths worldwide each year according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) were in sub-Saharan African.

Dengue –

  • Dengue fever can be caused by any one of four types of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. A person can be infected by at least two, if not all four types at different times during a life span, but only once by the same type.
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected humans, and later transmit infection to other people they bite. The two main species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been responsible for all cases of dengue transmitted in this country. Dengue is not contagious from person to person.
  • Dengue fever usually starts suddenly with a high fever, rash, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and muscle and joint pain. The severity of the joint pain has given dengue the name “break bone fever.” Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite are common. A rash usually appears 3 to 4 days after the start of the fever. The illness can last up to 10 days, but complete recovery can take as long as a month.


  • Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a disease. It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.  Its symptoms are characterised by abrupt fever and severe joint pain, often in hands and feet, and may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash.   There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for chikungunya.
  • There is no commercial chikungunya vaccine. Chikungunya treatment is directed primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretics, optimal analgesics and fluids.


HC sets aside Telangana State’s decision to demolish Errum Manzil

·       The Telangana High Court on Monday set aside the decision of the State Cabinet to demolish heritage structure Errum Manzil and build a new Assembly building there.

·       An individual’s identity is moulded by his or her culture, history and heritage. Therefore, preservation of heritage was incorporated to be part of “life” enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution, the bench noted.

·       The World Heritage Convention-1972 makes it imperative for the State to preserve heritage buildings which contribute to the sense of culture and identity of the State. “The State cannot afford the luxury of forgetting that the destruction of heritage building will rob its people of the essence of their identity and the city of its sense of uniqueness,” the verdict said.

·       Zoning Regulations 13 created Special Reservation Zone under which come the “heritage buildings and heritage precincts”. Errum Manzil is covered under these Regulations.


Hrant Dink Award

  • The International Hrant Dink Award commemorates the memory of Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink, who was killed in 2007.
  • Since 2009, the Hrant Dink Award is presented annually by the Hrant Dink Foundation on Hrant Dink’s birthday.
  • The award is presented to individuals, organisations or groups that work for a world free from discrimination, racism and violence, and who take personal risks for achieving those ideals. 


Periyar E.V Ramasamy

  • E V Ramasamy (1879-1973), popularly known as EVR, is hailed as ‘Periyar’ by his followers. He was a demagogue who used the social evils which were then prevalent, or perceived, as a capital for his propaganda. He was neither a rationalist nor a humanist. He was anti-Hindu and pro-British.
  • Periyar had joined Indian National Congress in 1920. He had a strong affinity towards Gandhi. An activist against the practice of untouchability, Periyar is famous for his struggle in Vaikkom, Kerala District in 1924 where earned the title “Vaikkom Hero’.
  • Periyar left Congress in 1925 and started a weekly, “Kudiyarasu” (Republic). The leader started writing extensively on issues like eradication of caste, re-marriage of widows, opposition of Orthodoxy and superstition. The title of “Periyar” was awarded to him in 1938 during the then Tamil Nadu Women’s Conference in Chennai.
  • In 1944, Periyar declared that Justice Party led by him would henceforth be known as the Dravidar Kazhagam, or “Dravidian Association”.
  • Periyar consistently argued for the equal rights of women in marriage, inheritance of property and civic life in general. He vehemently argued for accessible contraceptive methods for women, as early as in the 1930s. He redesigned marriage ceremonies, without any religious or community customs and without a priest that came to be known as ‘self-respect marriages.
  • He argued in favour of equal rights for lower-caste communities and women, issues of ‘caste identities’ and its politics continue to be as relevant.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *