28th November 2019 : UPSC Prelims Current Affairs : Prelims Sure Shot
1.Child Relief and You (CRY) Report
Why in news
- Crimes against children rise by 20 per cent say Child Relief and You (CRY) Report.
From the news:
- Crimes against children rose by 20 per cent –higher than overall number of crimes which rose by 3.6 per cent.
- The CRY analysis is based on the latest National Crime Records Bureau for 2016-2017 data released on October 2019.
About the Report:
- Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh topped the list of states for crimes against children.
- Jharkhand saw the highest increase in crimes against children at 73.9 per cent while Manipur had a significant decline of 18.7 percent between 2016 and 2017.
Child labour and child marriages:
- The Child labour in the country saw a substantial increase of 126%.
- The report says that in 2016 child labour was 204 and it increased to 462 in 2017.
- In case of Child Marriage there has been an increase of 21.17 per cent.
- The numbers were based on the cases registered under Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA), 2006.
2.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report
Why in news
- UNEP’s annual Emissions Gap Report – says that unless global greenhouse emissions fall by 7.6 per cent annually between 2020 and 2030.
From the Report:
- UNEP’s annual Emissions Gap Report –Cut global emissions by 6 percent every year for next decade to meet 1.5°C Paris target.
- The report finds that greenhouse gas emissions have risen 1.5 per cent per year over the last decade Emissions in 2018.
- Including from land-use changes such deforestation, hit a new high of 55.3 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent.
- The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has warned that going beyond 1.5°C will increase the frequency and intensity of climate impacts.
What does the Emissions Gap Report measure?
The Emissions Gap Report measures and projects three key trendlines:
- The amount of greenhouse gas emissions every year up to 2030
- The commitmentscountries are making to reduce their emissions and the impact these commitments are likely to have on overall emission reduction
- The paceat which emissions must be reduced to reach an emission low that would limit temperature increase to 5oC, affordably
The emissions come from:
- G20 nations collectively account for 78 per cent of all emissions, but only five G20 members have committed to a long-term zero-semission target.
- The top four emitters (China, USA, EU28 and India) contribute to over 55 per cent of the total emissions, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation.
- The largest shares of emissions come from the energy sector and its fossil fuel emissions.
More on report:
- To limit temperatures, annual emissions in 2030 need to be 1 gigatonne of CO2 equivalent lower than current unconditional NDC imply for the 2°C goal; they need to be 32 gigatonnes lower for the 1.5°C goal.
- On an annual basis, this means cuts in emissions of 7. per cent per year from 2020 to 2030 to meet the 1.5°C goal and 2.7 per cent per year for the 2°C goal.
3.China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
Why in news
- Pakistan rejected United States’ notion of Beijing being the sole benefactor of its China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
- The CPEC is the flagship project of the multi-billion dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a pet project of Chinese President Xi Jinping, aimed at enhancing Beijing’s influence around the world through China-funded infrastructure projects.
- It was launched in 2015 and passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir and Baluchistan.
- CPEC eventually aims at linking the city of Gwadar in South Western Pakistan to China‘s North Western region Xinjiang (Not Tibet region) through a vast network of highways and railways.
- The 3,000 km-long China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) consists of highways, railways, and pipelines.
- The CPEC, once completed is expected to cut short the trade route for China‘s oil imports by 6000 miles.
- It is expected to open up a brand-new strategic gateway for China to tap into African, West Asian and South Asian trade.
- India protests against the project as it pass through the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, breaching its’ territorial integrity.
- The proposed project will be financed by heavily-subsidised loans that will be disbursed to the Government of Pakistan by Chinese banking giants such as Exim Bank of China, China Development Bank, and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
- BRI consisting of the land-based belt, ‘Silk Road Economic Belt’, and ‘Maritime Silk Road’, aims to connect the East Asian economic region with the European economic circle and runs across the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa.
- It is China’s ambitious project announced in 2013.
- It covers about 65% of the world population, 60% of the world GDP and over 70 countries in six economic corridors.
- China is spending almost $1 trillion to revive and renew the overland and maritime trade links between China, Europe, West Asia, and East Africa through construction of modern ports linked to high-speed road and rail corridors.
4.Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019
Why in news
- The Parliament passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019.
Key Features of the bill
- The Bill defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth. It includes transmen and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra.
- A transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’.
- The Bill prohibits discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to:
- Education, employment, healthcare.
- Access to or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public.
- Right to movement, right to reside, rent, or otherwise occupy property.
- Opportunity to hold public or private office.
- Access to a government or private establishment in whose care or custody a transgender person is.
- The Bill also seeks to provide rights of health facilities to transgender persons including separate HIV surveillance centres, and sex reassignment surgeries.
- It also states that the government shall review medical curriculum to address health issues of transgender persons, and provide comprehensive medical insurance schemes for them.
- It calls for establishing a National Council for Transgender persons (NCT).
- It states that the offences against transgender persons will attract imprisonment between six months and two years, in addition to a fine.
Why in news
- Anti-corruption ombudsman Lokpal gets its logo, motto
More about the news
- It includes the shapes of the ombudsman (Judges’ Bench), the people (three human figures), vigilance (an Ashoka Chakra forming an eye), the law (a shape of book) and the judicial (two tri-colour hands placed below, forming a unique balance).
- It is designed by Prashant Mishra, a resident of Prayagraj, U.P.
- “Ma Gridhah Kasyasvidhanam (Do not be greedy for anyone’s wealth)”.
- Lokpal has decided its motto/slogan based on their own inputs and discussions.
Lokpal and Lokayukta
- The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 provided for the establishment of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States.
- These institutions are statutory bodies without any constitutional status.
- They perform the function of an “ombudsman” and inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.
- In India, the concept of constitutional ombudsman was first proposed by the then law minister Ashok Kumar Sen in parliament in the early 1960s.
- The term Lokpal and Lokayukta were coined by Dr L. M. Singhvi.
- The Bill was passed in 2013 in both the Houses of Parliament and came into force on 16 January 2014.
- To know more :
6.Milk Production in India
Why in news?
- The Union Minister for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying Shri Giriraj Singh addressed entrepreneurs, milk producer farmers, academia and media on the occasion of National Milk Day-2019 in New Delhi.
Milk Production in India
- Milk production has increased significantly from 137.7 million tonnes in 2013-14 to 187.75 million tonnes in 2018-19, thereby indicating an increase by 36.35%.
- Similarly, the per capita availability of milk increased from 307 grams in 2013-14 to 394 grams in 2018-19.
- Annual growth rate of Milk Production during the period 2009-14 was 4.2%, which has increased to 4% during 2014-19.
- The annual growth rate of world milk production has increased by 1.2% during 2014-19.
- Since last 20 years, India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world.
- About 70 million rural households are engaged in dairying in India with 80% of total cow population.
- During the last 15 years, Milk Cooperatives have converted about 20% of milk procured into traditional and value added products that offers about 20% higher revenue.
What are the steps taken by government in increasing production?
Rashtriya Gokul Mission:
- Its objective is to preserve and develop indigenous bovine.
Activities to be taken under this mission:
- Establishment of Gokul Gram, awarding farmers and institutes involved in the scientific rearing of Indigenous animals.
- E-Pashu Haat portal: Helping the livestock rearers and the farmers to sell and purchase Cattle and Buffaloes of Indigenous Breeds.
- National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres: Two National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres are being established (one in Madhya Pradesh and the other in Andhra Pradesh).
- These will be centres of excellence for preservation and development of Indigenous Breeds in a scientific way.
Why in News
- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched Cartosat-3 and 13 commercial nanosatellites into Sun Synchronous orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota.
- Cartosat-3 is anearth-observation remote sensing satellite which will replace Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) series. So far, ISRO has orbited 8 Cartosats since 2005.
- Remote sensingis the science of obtaining information about objects or areas from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites.
- The 13 commercial nanosatellites are from the USA, which is the first commercial order for New Space India Limited, the commercial arm of ISRO which was formed in March 2019.
- Cartosat-3 is a third-generation advanced earth observation satellitecarried by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47.
- PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) is an indigenously-developed expendable launch system of the ISRO.
- Resolution: It has the ‘sharpest eye’of civil remote sensing satellites in the world.
- One of Cartosat-3’s cameras offers aground resolution of 25 cm – it can pick up an object of a minimum of 25 cm size from a height of around 500 km.
- Currently,a satellite owned by US private company- WorldView-3, has the best ground resolution of 31 cm.
- Weight:At 1,625 kg, Cartosat-3 is unusually heavy and more than double the mass of the previous eight in its class.
- Orbit:PSLV will place Cartosat 3 in an orbit of 509 km.
- Inclination:It has been placed at 5 degrees to the equator of the earth.
- It has many new technologies such as a highly agile or flexible camera; high-speed data transmission, advanced computer system, etc.
- Data from most of the Cartosat satellitesare exclusively used by the armed forces.
- However, an existing policyallows only government and government authorised agencies to access ISRO’s high-resolution imageries below a resolution of 1 metre.
- Cartosat-3’s optical imagingwill also help to detect precise cartographic or mapping activities.
- The imageries are also used for urban and rural infrastructure planning, coastal land use and regulation, utility management such as monitoring road networks, water grids or distribution, creation of land use maps, disaster management, etc.
About Cartosat Satellites
- The Cartosat satellites are earth observation satellites, used mainly for large-scale mapping of the Earth through high-resolution cameras.
- It also helps to detect changes in natural geographical or man-made features. As their cameras can `look back and forth’ in an angle to generate continuous spot images.
- The Earth-observation satellites also include the Resourcesat and RISAT series, the Oceansat series.
- The Resourcesat and RISAT series of satellites, for example, provide images and data that are needed for land and water resources applications.
- The Oceansat series and the SARAL satellite, meanwhile, produce data on the oceans.
- The satellites like INSAT 3D, INSAT-VRR or Megha Tropiques study the atmosphere.