Reports on Global Warming of 1.5 °C

Why in News ?

  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO) released “Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update 2023-2027” report.
  • WMO also released “State of Global Climate 2022” report.
  • Both reports provide insights into climate trends, projections, and current state of global climate.

Major Findings

  • Reports predict precipitation anomalies and more marine heat waves than cold spells.
  • El Niño expected to strengthen, leading to temperatures higher than 2016 in 2023-2027.
  • Global surface temperature to be 1.1-1.8°C higher than pre-industrial levels by 2027.
  • Shrinking cryosphere and glacier loss in High-mountain Asia, Western North America, and South America.
  • Rapid Arctic warming causing accelerated melting of Greenlandic ice sheet, contributing to rising sea levels.

What is the 1.5 degree Celsius target?

  • Paris Agreement: Legally binding international treaty on climate change.
  • Adopted by 196 Parties at COP21 in 2015, entered into force in 2016.
  • Aims to limit global temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • Seeks efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • Unites nations in combating climate change and adapting to its effects.

Why is it needed ?

  • Global warming limit of 1.5°C emphasized by world leaders.
  • Crossing 1.5°C threshold increases risks of severe climate change impacts.
  • More frequent and severe droughts, heatwaves, and rainfall expected.
  • Highlighted by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Global Impacts

  • Climate risks impact human population and ecosystems based on exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity.
  • Negative effects include food insecurity, displacement, and deaths.
  • Crop yields affected, agricultural pests and diseases increase.
  • Countries like Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Afghanistan face acute food shortages.
  • Heatwaves and floods impact crop yields and displace populations.
  • Climate change disrupts phenological shifts, reduces migratory species populations, and threatens coral reefs.
  • Extreme weather caused 2 million deaths and $4.3 trillion in damages over 50 years.
  • 22,608 disaster deaths recorded globally in 2020-2021.

Impact on India

  • India experiencing increasing impact of climate change.
  • February 2023 recorded as hottest month since 1901.
  • 80% of days in 2022 witnessed extreme weather events.
  • Wetter monsoons followed by wildfires and food shortages.
  • India ranked eighth in Climate Change Performance Index 2023 after Denmark, Sweden, Chile, and Morocco.



New Parliament Building

Why In News?

  • PM Modi inaugurated new Parliament building.
  • Features include artwork and ceremonial sceptre ‘Sengol’.

Features of new Parliament Building

  • New Parliament building with 65,000 sq m built-up area.
  • Lok Sabha hall with up to 888 seats, Rajya Sabha hall with up to 384 seats.
  • Peacock theme for Lok Sabha, lotus theme for Rajya Sabha.
  • Constitutional Hall symbolizes citizens’ role in democracy.
  • Central Lounge for member interaction, divyang-friendly.
  • Modern office spaces, advanced committee rooms, superior library.
  • Platinum-rated Green Building, reflecting environmental sustainability commitment.

Central Vista Redevelopment Project

  • New parliament building part of Central Vista Redevelopment Project.
  • Project aims to revamp India’s central administrative area in New Delhi.
  • Original design by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker during British colonial rule.

Scheduled between 2020 and 2026, the project aims to 

  • Central Vista Redevelopment Project includes revamping 3 km long Kartvyapath (pathway).
  • North and South Blocks to become publicly accessible museums.
  • New Central Secretariat to house all ministries.
  • New Parliament building with increased seating capacity.
  • New residence and office for Vice-President and Prime Minister, converting older structures into museums.


Joint Malnutrition Estimates

Why in News?

  • UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank release Joint Malnutrition Estimates.


  • UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank update global and regional estimates of malnutrition in children under 5.
  • Estimates cover child stunting, overweight, wasting, and severe wasting.
  • Data provided for global population, UN regions, SDGs, UNICEF, WHO, World Bank regions, and country-income groups.


Indian Scenario:

  • India has seen a reduction in stunting among children under five, with 1.6 crore fewer stunted children in 2022 compared to 2012.
  • Stunting prevalence decreased from 41.6% in 2012 to 31.7% in 2022, with numbers dropping from 52 lakh to 36 lakh.
  • India’s share of global stunting burden declined from 30% to 25% in the past decade.
  • Wasting prevalence in India was 18.7% in 2022, accounting for 49% of the global burden.
  • Obesity prevalence slightly increased from 2.2% in 2012 to 2.8% in 2022, contributing to 8.8% of the global share, lower than the global prevalence of 5.6%.

Global Scenario:

  • Globally, stunting prevalence declined from 26.3% in 2012 to 22.3% in 2022.
  • The prevalence of obesity remained unchanged at 5.6% worldwide.
  • Insufficient progress has been made to achieve global nutrition targets and SDG 2 targets by 2025 and 2030, respectively.
  • Only about one-third of countries are expected to halve the number of children affected by stunting by 2030.
  • Fewer countries are projected to achieve the target of 3% prevalence for overweight by 2030.

In line with National Family Health Survey (NFHS)

  • NFHS-5 data in India indicates a decline in stunting prevalence from 48% in NFHS-3 (2006) to 38% in NFHS-4 (2016) and further to 35.5%.
  • NFHS-5 also showed improvements in access to health services and reduction in underweight children.
  • Two-thirds of child wasting in India is attributed to maternal malnutrition, indicating the importance of addressing maternal nutrition for child health.

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New NavIC Satellite 

Why in News?

  • ISRO successfully launched the first of its second-generation satellites for its navigation constellation.


  • ISRO’s NVS-01 is the heaviest satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation.
  • It was launched by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket from Sriharikota.
  • The previous satellites in the constellation were much lighter.

Features of Second-generation NavIC satellite

Atomic Clock : 

  • The satellite will have a Rubidium atomic clock, developed by India.
  • Satellites rely on atomic clocks for accurate positioning, and failures of these clocks led to the launch of replacement satellites in 2018.

 L1 signals for better use in wearable devices:

  • Second-generation satellites will transmit L1 signals along with existing L5 and S frequency signals, enhancing compatibility with other navigation systems.
  • This will enable wider adoption of regional navigation in low-power wearable devices and personal trackers using single-frequency chips.

 Longer mission life:

  • Second-gen satellites: Mission life >12 years.
  • Existing satellites: Mission life 10 years. Increased longevity for improved service.

 Practical purpose of the NAvIC constellation

  • NavIC usage: Public vehicle safety, power grid sync, real-time train info, fishermen’s safety.
  • Upcoming initiatives: emergency warning, time dissemination, geodetic network, UAVs. Chipsets by Qualcomm and MediaTek integrated NavIC receivers in 2019.

Significant Features of regional navigation system

  • Satellite-based navigation systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou. Japan has its system like India’s GAGAN.
  • NavIC is more accurate than GPS, with a 5-meter precision.
  • Limited to India and up to 1,500 km from its borders.
  • High geo-stationary orbit ensures consistent coverage.
  • Signals reach congested areas, forests, mountains.
  • Expanding coverage area considered.

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Foucault pendulum

Why in News ?

  • New Parliament building in Delhi features a Foucault pendulum. Takes 49 hours, 59 minutes, and 18 seconds for one rotation.

About Foucault pendulum

  • Foucault pendulum named after Léon Foucault, a French physicist.
  • It demonstrates the Earth’s rotation.
  • Consists of a heavy bob suspended from a ceiling.
  • Designed and installed by National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), Kolkata.



Rs 75 Coin Launched to mark inauguration of New Parliament

Why in News ?

  • PM Modi unveiled Rs 75 commemorative coin at new Parliament building inauguration ceremony.


  • Rs 75 coin: Circular, 44mm diameter, composed of 50% silver, 40% copper, 5% nickel, and 5% zinc.


  • Rs 75 coin: Face bears Ashoka Pillar’s Lion Capital, with Satyameva Jayate below.
  • Left periphery has “Bharat” in Devnagri, and right periphery has “INDIA” in English.
  • Reverse displays new parliament building with “Sansad Sankul” and “Parliament Complex” inscriptions.

Background of Commemorative Coins

  • India’s first commemorative coin released in 1964 honored Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister, who passed away that year.
  • Commemorative coins are issued to pay homage, raise awareness, and mark significant historical events.

 Power to design and mint coins

  • Under the Coinage Act, 2011, the central government has the authority to design and mint coins.
  • The RBI’s role is limited to distributing coins supplied by the government.
  • Coins are minted in government-owned facilities in Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Noida.


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