Reports on Global Warming of 1.5 °C
Why in News ?
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO) released “Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update 2023-2027” report.
- WMO also released “State of Global Climate 2022” report.
- Both reports provide insights into climate trends, projections, and current state of global climate.
- Reports predict precipitation anomalies and more marine heat waves than cold spells.
- El Niño expected to strengthen, leading to temperatures higher than 2016 in 2023-2027.
- Global surface temperature to be 1.1-1.8°C higher than pre-industrial levels by 2027.
- Shrinking cryosphere and glacier loss in High-mountain Asia, Western North America, and South America.
- Rapid Arctic warming causing accelerated melting of Greenlandic ice sheet, contributing to rising sea levels.
What is the 1.5 degree Celsius target?
- Paris Agreement: Legally binding international treaty on climate change.
- Adopted by 196 Parties at COP21 in 2015, entered into force in 2016.
- Aims to limit global temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
- Seeks efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
- Unites nations in combating climate change and adapting to its effects.
Why is it needed ?
- Global warming limit of 1.5°C emphasized by world leaders.
- Crossing 1.5°C threshold increases risks of severe climate change impacts.
- More frequent and severe droughts, heatwaves, and rainfall expected.
- Highlighted by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- Climate risks impact human population and ecosystems based on exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity.
- Negative effects include food insecurity, displacement, and deaths.
- Crop yields affected, agricultural pests and diseases increase.
- Countries like Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Afghanistan face acute food shortages.
- Heatwaves and floods impact crop yields and displace populations.
- Climate change disrupts phenological shifts, reduces migratory species populations, and threatens coral reefs.
- Extreme weather caused 2 million deaths and $4.3 trillion in damages over 50 years.
- 22,608 disaster deaths recorded globally in 2020-2021.
Impact on India
- India experiencing increasing impact of climate change.
- February 2023 recorded as hottest month since 1901.
- 80% of days in 2022 witnessed extreme weather events.
- Wetter monsoons followed by wildfires and food shortages.
- India ranked eighth in Climate Change Performance Index 2023 after Denmark, Sweden, Chile, and Morocco.
New Parliament Building
Why In News?
- PM Modi inaugurated new Parliament building.
- Features include artwork and ceremonial sceptre ‘Sengol’.
Features of new Parliament Building
- New Parliament building with 65,000 sq m built-up area.
- Lok Sabha hall with up to 888 seats, Rajya Sabha hall with up to 384 seats.
- Peacock theme for Lok Sabha, lotus theme for Rajya Sabha.
- Constitutional Hall symbolizes citizens’ role in democracy.
- Central Lounge for member interaction, divyang-friendly.
- Modern office spaces, advanced committee rooms, superior library.
- Platinum-rated Green Building, reflecting environmental sustainability commitment.
Central Vista Redevelopment Project
- New parliament building part of Central Vista Redevelopment Project.
- Project aims to revamp India’s central administrative area in New Delhi.
- Original design by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker during British colonial rule.
Scheduled between 2020 and 2026, the project aims to
- Central Vista Redevelopment Project includes revamping 3 km long Kartvyapath (pathway).
- North and South Blocks to become publicly accessible museums.
- New Central Secretariat to house all ministries.
- New Parliament building with increased seating capacity.
- New residence and office for Vice-President and Prime Minister, converting older structures into museums.
Joint Malnutrition Estimates
Why in News?
- UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank release Joint Malnutrition Estimates.
- UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank update global and regional estimates of malnutrition in children under 5.
- Estimates cover child stunting, overweight, wasting, and severe wasting.
- Data provided for global population, UN regions, SDGs, UNICEF, WHO, World Bank regions, and country-income groups.
- India has seen a reduction in stunting among children under five, with 1.6 crore fewer stunted children in 2022 compared to 2012.
- Stunting prevalence decreased from 41.6% in 2012 to 31.7% in 2022, with numbers dropping from 52 lakh to 36 lakh.
- India’s share of global stunting burden declined from 30% to 25% in the past decade.
- Wasting prevalence in India was 18.7% in 2022, accounting for 49% of the global burden.
- Obesity prevalence slightly increased from 2.2% in 2012 to 2.8% in 2022, contributing to 8.8% of the global share, lower than the global prevalence of 5.6%.
- Globally, stunting prevalence declined from 26.3% in 2012 to 22.3% in 2022.
- The prevalence of obesity remained unchanged at 5.6% worldwide.
- Insufficient progress has been made to achieve global nutrition targets and SDG 2 targets by 2025 and 2030, respectively.
- Only about one-third of countries are expected to halve the number of children affected by stunting by 2030.
- Fewer countries are projected to achieve the target of 3% prevalence for overweight by 2030.
In line with National Family Health Survey (NFHS)
- NFHS-5 data in India indicates a decline in stunting prevalence from 48% in NFHS-3 (2006) to 38% in NFHS-4 (2016) and further to 35.5%.
- NFHS-5 also showed improvements in access to health services and reduction in underweight children.
- Two-thirds of child wasting in India is attributed to maternal malnutrition, indicating the importance of addressing maternal nutrition for child health.
New NavIC Satellite
Why in News?
- ISRO successfully launched the first of its second-generation satellites for its navigation constellation.
- ISRO’s NVS-01 is the heaviest satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation.
- It was launched by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket from Sriharikota.
- The previous satellites in the constellation were much lighter.
Features of Second-generation NavIC satellite
Atomic Clock :
- The satellite will have a Rubidium atomic clock, developed by India.
- Satellites rely on atomic clocks for accurate positioning, and failures of these clocks led to the launch of replacement satellites in 2018.
L1 signals for better use in wearable devices:
- Second-generation satellites will transmit L1 signals along with existing L5 and S frequency signals, enhancing compatibility with other navigation systems.
- This will enable wider adoption of regional navigation in low-power wearable devices and personal trackers using single-frequency chips.
Longer mission life:
- Second-gen satellites: Mission life >12 years.
- Existing satellites: Mission life 10 years. Increased longevity for improved service.
Practical purpose of the NAvIC constellation
- NavIC usage: Public vehicle safety, power grid sync, real-time train info, fishermen’s safety.
- Upcoming initiatives: emergency warning, time dissemination, geodetic network, UAVs. Chipsets by Qualcomm and MediaTek integrated NavIC receivers in 2019.
Significant Features of regional navigation system
- Satellite-based navigation systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou. Japan has its system like India’s GAGAN.
- NavIC is more accurate than GPS, with a 5-meter precision.
- Limited to India and up to 1,500 km from its borders.
- High geo-stationary orbit ensures consistent coverage.
- Signals reach congested areas, forests, mountains.
- Expanding coverage area considered.
Source – https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/isro-begins-countdown-for-launch-of-navigation-satellite-to-maintain-continuity-of-indias-own-satnav/article66904236.ece
Why in News ?
- New Parliament building in Delhi features a Foucault pendulum. Takes 49 hours, 59 minutes, and 18 seconds for one rotation.
About Foucault pendulum
- Foucault pendulum named after Léon Foucault, a French physicist.
- It demonstrates the Earth’s rotation.
- Consists of a heavy bob suspended from a ceiling.
- Designed and installed by National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), Kolkata.
Rs 75 Coin Launched to mark inauguration of New Parliament
Why in News ?
- PM Modi unveiled Rs 75 commemorative coin at new Parliament building inauguration ceremony.
- Rs 75 coin: Circular, 44mm diameter, composed of 50% silver, 40% copper, 5% nickel, and 5% zinc.
- Rs 75 coin: Face bears Ashoka Pillar’s Lion Capital, with Satyameva Jayate below.
- Left periphery has “Bharat” in Devnagri, and right periphery has “INDIA” in English.
- Reverse displays new parliament building with “Sansad Sankul” and “Parliament Complex” inscriptions.
Background of Commemorative Coins
- India’s first commemorative coin released in 1964 honored Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister, who passed away that year.
- Commemorative coins are issued to pay homage, raise awareness, and mark significant historical events.
Power to design and mint coins
- Under the Coinage Act, 2011, the central government has the authority to design and mint coins.
- The RBI’s role is limited to distributing coins supplied by the government.
- Coins are minted in government-owned facilities in Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Noida.
Source – https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-economics/rs-75-coin-new-parliament-features-where-to-buy-8633604/