9th October 2019 Prelims Sure Shot
- A Co-operative bank is a financial entity which belongs to its members, who are at the same time the owners and the customers of their bank.
- Co-operative banks in India are registered under the States Cooperative Societies Act. The Co-operative banks are also regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and governed by the
- Banking Regulations Act 1949
- Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.
Features of Cooperative Banks:
- Customer Owned Entities: Co-operative bank members are both customer and owner of the bank.
- Democratic Member Control: Co-operative banks are owned and controlled by the members, who democratically elect a board of directors. Members usually have equal voting rights, according to the cooperative principle of “one person, one vote”.
- Profit Allocation: A significant part of the yearly profit, benefits or surplus is usually allocated to constitute reserves and a part of this profit can also be distributed to the co-operative members, with legal and statutory limitations.
- Financial Inclusion: They have played a significant role in the financial inclusion of unbanked rural masses.
Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)
- CAATSA stands for “Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act”
- This punitive act was signed by President Donald Trump in August 2017.
- It mandates US administration to impose sanctions on any country carrying out significant defense and energy trade with sanctioned entities in North Korea, Iran and Russia.
- This is an act by the Congress, thus the President of the United States of America doesn’t have too much of authority over it.
- Mountain range starts around the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, to the south of river Tapti.
- Runs through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- Ends at Kanyakumari, the southern tip of India. It covers approximately 1600km.
- The Western Ghats blocks southwestern monsoon winds reaching the Deccan plateau.
- Major rivers originate from the Ghats; these include Godavari, Kaveri, Krishna, Thamiraparani, and Tungabhadra.
- The Western Ghats, also known as ‘Sahyadri’, constitute a 1600 km long mountain chain along the west coast of India. The mountain chain of the Western Ghats represents geomorphic features of immense importance with unique biophysical and ecological processes. The site’s high montane forest ecosystems influence the Indian monsoon weather pattern. It also has an exceptionally high level of biological diversity and endemism.
- It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight “hottest hot-spots” of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. It is known as one of Ecologically Sensitive Area.
Bureau of Indian Standards
- BIS is National Standard Body of India established under BIS Act, 1986.
- It is mandated for harmonious development of activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected.
- It is headquartered at New Delhi.
- BIS is involved in various activities such as standards formulation, product certification scheme, compulsory registration scheme, foreign manufacturers certification scheme, hall marking scheme, laboratory services, laboratory recognition scheme, sale of Indian standards, consumer affairs activities, promotional activities, training services, national & international level and information services.
- The Shaheen Falcon is a non-migratory sub species of the peregrine falcon, is known for reaching speeds in the excess of 300 km an hour while driving to capture prey and are listed as being “Vulnerable” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.
- The Shaheen is found in South Asia from Pakistan across to India and Bangladesh in the east and to Sri Lanka, central and south-eastern China and northern Myanmar. In India, it has been recorded in all states mainly from rocky and hilly regions. The Shaheen has also been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.