Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes



1.Ahilyabai Holkar (1725-1795)

Why In News? : Birth anniversary of Ahilyabai Holkar.

About Ahilyabai Holkar:

  • Born into a Dhangar/Gadariya family in Ahmednagar, Maharashtra.
  • After the deaths of her husband and son, she led the Holkar Dynasty in Malwa.
  • Known as “Punyashlok” – liberator from hardships.

Reign (until 1795):

  • Ensured stability and peace in Malwa during a period of regional power struggle.
  • Focused on good governance and social harmony.
  • Appointed Tukoji Holkar as military commander due to her gender limitations.
  • Personally led armies to defend Malwa.

Malwa Region:

  • West-central India, encompassing western Madhya Pradesh and parts of southeastern Rajasthan.
  • Geographically, refers to the volcanic Malwa Plateau north of the Vindhya Range.

Development under Ahilyabai:

  • Indore transformed into a prosperous trading town.
  • Established Maheshwar (on Narmada River) as her capital.
  • Maheshwar became a cultural and industrial center under her rule.
    • Famous Maheshwari sarees originated there.

Architectural Contributions:

  • Patron of Hindu temples and dharamshalas.
  • Built hundreds of temples across her region.
  • Restored Jyotirlingas (sacred Shiva shrines) across India.
  • Refurbished pilgrimage sites like Kashi, Gaya, and Somnath.
  • Implemented a unique strategy to protect temples: installing hidden idols for added security.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/when-a-holkar-queen-gave-india-ram-rajya-9362764/




2.Statutory Bail

Why in News ?

  • Recent Delhi HC case involving a JNU scholar granted statutory bail.

About Statutory Bail:

  • Legal provision for undertrial release based on conditions.
  • Right granted to accused regardless of the crime.
  • Ensures undertrial isn’t detained indefinitely before trial.

Legal Framework:

  • Section 436A of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC).
  • Introduced in 2005 to address rising undertrials in prisons.


  • Undertrial in custody for > half the maximum imprisonment for the offence (excluding death penalty cases).

Release Conditions:

  • Personal bond with or without sureties.
  • Court must provide written reasons for denial.


  • Offences with death penalty as a possible punishment.
  • Delays caused by the undertrial in legal proceedings.

Other Bail Provisions in India (CrPC 1973):

  • Types of Bail:
    • Interim Bail: Temporary bail for a short period.
    • Regular Bail: Release to ensure presence at trial.
    • Anticipatory Bail: Bail granted before arrest (non-bailable offences).

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-law/sharjeel-imam-bail-will-still-not-be-released-9361307/




3.Hoolock Gibbon – India’s Only Ape

Habitat: Tropical & subtropical forests in Southeast Asia.


  • India (Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh etc.)
  • Myanmar
  • Bangladesh
  • Southern China


  • Eastern Hoolock Gibbon (Vulnerable) – Specific region of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Western Hoolock Gibbon (Endangered) – Rest of Northeast India


  • Size: Similar for males & females (differ in color)
  • Male: Black with white brows
  • Female: Grey-brown fur (darker chest & neck)
  • Diurnal & arboreal (spend most of life in trees)
  • Monogamous (mate for life)
  • Live in family groups
  • Communicate through vocalizations (loud calls)
  • Intelligent with distinct personalities & strong family bonds
  • Lifespan: 25 years

Conservation Efforts:

  • Northeast Frontier Railway building canopy bridges for safe passage across railway tracks.
  • Listed on Schedule I of India’s Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972).

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/railways-to-build-canopy-bridges-across-track-in-assam-gibbon-habitat/article68235654.ece




4.Koya Tribe of Godavari Valley

Challenge: Cultural crisis due to Special Enforcement Bureau raids targeting Mahua liquor consumption, a cherished tradition.

Region: Godavari Valley (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Odisha)

Culture & Society:

  • Multi-racial, multi-lingual tribe
  • Traditional occupations: Pastoralism, shifting cultivation
  • Current occupations: Settled cultivation, animal husbandry, forest collection (Jowar, Ragi, Bajra millets)
  • Social Structure:
    • Five sub-divisions (gotrams)
    • Patrilineal & patrilocal families (“Kutum”) – Monogamous
    • Blend of ethnic religion & Hinduism – Female deities emphasized (esp. “mother earth”)
    • Community funds & grain banks for support
    • Burial/cremation with menhirs for the deceased
  • Festivals: Vijji Pandum (seeds), KondalaKolupu (Hill deities)
  • Dance: Permakok (Bison horn dance) for celebrations

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/andhras-koya-tribe-faces-brewing-conflict-over-sacred-flower-mahua/article68231743.ece



Security / Defence

5.Next-Generation Offshore Patrol Vessel (NGOPV)

  • Recently, construction began on the first NGOPV for the Indian Coast Guard.
  • Designed for modern maritime security challenges.
  • Equipped with advanced machinery and features.


  • Twin diesel engines for a maximum speed of 23 knots.
  • Range of 5,000 nautical miles.
  • Integral facilities for twin-engine and heavy helicopters for aerial operations.
  • First vessel to be delivered by May 2027 (contract for 6 vessels worth ₹1,614.89 crore).

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/construction-begins-on-next-gen-opvs-for-coast-guard/article68236701.ece



Security / Defence

6.Operation Blue Star

  • Indian Armed Forces operation (June 1-10, 1984) to remove Sikh militants led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple Complex in Amritsar.
  • Context: Punjab insurgency (late 1970s-1980s) for a separate Sikh state (“Khalistan”).
  • Bhindranwale fortified the Akal Takht shrine within the complex, escalating violence.
  • Indira Gandhi government launched Operation Blue Star to neutralize the militants.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/blue-star-theft-of-holy-book-why-june-1-is-an-important-date-in-punjab-politics-9360393/


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