Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes


1.Constitutional Morality in India


  • Adherence to constitutional norms within a democracy.
  • Goes beyond literal interpretation, encompassing values like social justice & equality.
  • Coined by George Grote (History of Greece).
  • Balance between freedom and restraint: citizens submit to authority while having the freedom to criticize it.

Indian Constitution:

  • Not explicitly mentioned, but embedded in various sections:
    • Preamble: outlines democratic principles (justice, liberty, equality, fraternity).
    • Fundamental Rights: safeguards individual rights against arbitrary state power (enforceable under Article 32).
    • Directive Principles: guidelines for the state to pursue goals set by framers.
    • Fundamental Duties: responsibilities of citizens to the nation.
    • Checks and Balances: judicial review, legislative oversight, etc.

Supreme Court’s Viewpoint:

  • Emphasized its importance for good governance (Krishnamoorthy case, 2015).
  • Highlighted officials’ duty to uphold it (Union of India vs. Govt. of NCT of Delhi, 2015).
  • Likened it to a “second basic structure doctrine” to curb arbitrary authority (Govt. of NCT of Delhi case, 2018).
  • Protected LGBTQI+ rights by striking down Section 377 (Navtej Singh Johar case, 2018).
  • Upheld Aadhaar with restrictions, underlining courts’ role in checking abuse of power (Justice K S Puttaswamy case, 2018).


  • Debates on interpretation, especially regarding conflicts between:
    • Individual rights vs. collective interests.
    • Different constitutional provisions.
  • Issues like affirmative action, free speech, and privacy rights raise discussions.




2.Santhal Hul (1855): A Tribal Uprising in Jharkhand


  • Hul Diwas (June 30) marks the anniversary of the Santhal rebellion against the British.


  • Sidho, Kanho, Chand, Bhairav Murmu (brothers)
  • Phulo & Jhano Murmu (sisters)

Cause of Revolt:

  • Exploitation by upper castes, zamindars, moneylenders (dikus).
  • Land alienation by British East India Company:
    • Santhal Pargana (Damin-i-Koh) created in 1832 for Santhals.
    • Land grabbing and forced labor

Course of Rebellion:

  • 1855: Santhals (around 60,000) led by Murmu brothers revolted against British.
  • Guerilla warfare against the East India Company.
  • British capture and execution of Sidho Murmu (1855) and Kanhu Murmu (1856).


  • Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act (SPT Act) of 1876:
    • Restricted land transfer from tribals to non-tribals.
    • Protected Santhal land rights and self-governance.
  • Chotanagpur Tenancy Act (CNT Act) of 1908 (due to Birsa Movement):
    • Allowed land transfers within same caste/geographic areas with approval.



Art and Culture

3.Kozhikode Declared UNESCO City of Literature

  • Kerala’s Kozhikode became India’s first UNESCO ‘City of Literature’ in October 2023.

About UNESCO Creative Cities Network:

  • Launched in 2004, it has over 350 member cities in 100+ countries.
  • Recognizes cities for cultural contributions in various fields like literature, music, film, etc.
  • Offers a platform for knowledge sharing and building sustainable cities.
  • 2023 conference theme: “Bringing youth to the table for the next decade.”




4.RBI Joins Project Nexus for Faster Cross-Border Payments

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has joined Project Nexus.

What is Project Nexus?

  • Developed by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) Innovation Hub.
  • First live BIS project in the payments area.
  • Aims to connect instant payment systems (IPS) globally for faster cross-border transactions.
  • Involves central banks and IPS operators from India, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (with Indonesia as observer).
  • Expected to be operational by 2026.




5.Hurricane Beryl: A Powerful Storm

Recent Impact (July 2024):

  • Made landfall, causing floods in Barbados, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Grenada.


  • Warm ocean water (evaporates) and moist air provide energy.
  • Rising warm air creates low pressure, leading to winds spiraling inwards.
  • Wind speed over 74 mph (119 kmph) strengthens the storm.


  • Hurricane: Atlantic & North Pacific (over 74 mph)
  • Typhoon: East Asia (Northwestern Pacific)
  • Cyclone: Indian & South Pacific Oceans




6.Indian Naval Ship INS Ranvir Visits Bangladesh


  • Part of Operational Deployment in the Eastern Fleet.
  • Strengthens cooperation and maritime links between India & Bangladesh.
  • Aligns with SAGAR initiative for regional security and growth.


  • Subject Matter Expert Exchange (SMEE)
  • Cross-deck visits
  • Community outreach
  • Friendly sports fixtures

About INS Ranvir:

  • Rajput-class Guided Missile Destroyer (upgraded)
  • Commissioned: 1986
  • Displacement: 4,974 tons
  • Length: 146 meters
  • Speed: 30 knots


  • Missiles: Kh-35 Uran, BrahMos (surface-to-surface), SA-N-1 Goa (surface-to-air)
  • Guns: 100 mm AK-100 gun, CIWS (defense against missiles/aircraft)
  • Torpedoes & Anti-Submarine Warfare: RBU-6000 launchers, 533 mm torpedo tubes




7.Snowblind: Banking Malware for Android

Target: Steals banking credentials on Android devices.

Origin: Discovered by Promon, a cybersecurity firm.


  • Exploits built-in Android security feature (Seccomp) to bypass app tampering detection.
  • Repackages apps to hide use of accessibility features for stealing information.
  • Injects malicious code before security checks, enabling remote control and bypassing additional security measures like fingerprint or two-factor authentication.

Spreads through: Downloading apps from untrusted sources.


  • Install apps only from reputable sources (e.g., Google Play Store).
  • Keep software and security features updated.

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