Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes

1.Global Planetary Defense Efforts 


  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is keen to be part of global planetary defense efforts ahead of Earth’s 2029close encounter with asteroid Apophis.


  • Planetary defense, the detection of asteroids and comets whose impact with Earth could significantly affect the planet and the prevention or mitigation of any such impacts.
  • Asteroid Day: Asteroid Day is observed every year by the space community on June 30 on account of a huge air blast from an asteroid flattening 2,200 sq km of forest in Siberia, Russia, on June 30, 1908.


2.TDF Scheme (MoD) for “Atmanirbharta” in Defence 

Promotes Self-Reliance (Make in India):

  • Flagship program of Ministry of Defence (MoD) executed by DRDO.
  • Provides Grant-in-Aid to:
    • Indian industries (MSMEs, startups)
    • Academic & scientific institutions


  • Develop defence & dual-use technologies (not currently available in India)
  • Foster design & development culture in private industries (MSMEs, startups) for military technology
  • Focus on niche technology R&D (first time in India)
  • Bridge the gap between: Armed Forces, research organizations, academia & private sector


3.Spiral Galaxies Found Earlier Than Expected

New Discovery:

  • Evidence of spiral galaxies found just 500 million years after the Big Bang (Universe age: 13.8 billion years).
  • This challenges the previous belief of spiral galaxy formation around 6 billion years ago.

Galaxy Basics:

  • Galaxies: Collections of stars, planets, gas & dust bound by gravity.
  • Sizes: Range from thousands to trillions of stars, spanning hundreds to millions of light-years.
  • Shapes: Spiral, elliptical, and irregular.

Spiral Galaxy Formation:

  • Early Universe: Hot, dense plasma state with clumps of matter forming irregular galaxies.
  • Cooling Universe: Formation of hot, thick disks in galaxies, eventually evolving into thin disks and spiral arms (billions of years).
  • Younger galaxies tend to be spiral, older ones have diverse shapes.

Our Home: The Milky Way

  • Milky Way: A spiral galaxy with a 100,000+ light-year wide disk of stars.
  • Solar System: Orbits the Milky Way every 240 million years.


4.Codex Alimentarius Commission 

India Elected to Codex Executive Committee (July 2024):

  • Represents Asian region in the FAO-WHO body.

Codex Alimentarius (Food Code):

  • Collection of international standards for food safety & fair trade.
  • Covers aspects like additives, contaminants, labelling, nutrition etc.

Origins & Purpose (Established by FAO & WHO in 1963):

  • Protects consumer health through science-based food safety standards.
  • Promotes fair practices in international food trade.

Importance of Codex Standards:

  • Ensure food safety for consumers.
  • Facilitate international food trade negotiations.
  • Provide science-based recommendations for member countries (188).


5.Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) Project: India’s 5th Generation Fighter Aircraft

  • Project Goal: Develop an indigenous 5th generation fighter jet for the Indian Air Force and Navy.
  • Timeline:
    • Sanctioned: March 2024 [Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS)]
    • Prototype Expected: 2028-29
    • Production Start: 2032-33
    • Induction: Early 2030s
  • Key Features:
    • 25-ton twin-engine stealth aircraft
    • Internal weapons bay
    • Diverterless supersonic intake (developed in India)
    • Internal payload: 1,500 kg
    • External payload: 5,500 kg
    • Internal fuel: 6,500 kg
  • Developed By:
    • Designed by Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) in collaboration with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
    • Manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
  • Significance:
    • India’s only planned 5th generation fighter aircraft
    • Promotes self-reliance in advanced military technology
    • Cost-effective alternative to Western and Russian jets
    • Enhances air superiority, deterrence, and strike capabilities

Compared to Global Peers:

  • F-35 Lightning II (USA): Stealth and multirole combat
  • Sukhoi Su-57 (Russia): Maneuverability and advanced avionics
  • Chengdu J-20 (China): Stealth and long-range strike


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