Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes

1.NOTA in Indian Elections

  • Indore Lok Sabha Constituency Record: Over 2 lakh votes for NOTA, highest ever in any constituency.
  • Previous Record: Gopalganj, Bihar, in 2019 with 51,660 NOTA votes.

About NOTA

  • Introduction: Implemented in 2013, allows voters to reject all candidates.
  • Supreme Court Judgement: PUCL vs. Union of India (2013) led to the inclusion of NOTA in Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.
  • First Use: 2013 legislative assembly elections in Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi.
  • Popularity: Gained traction, sometimes securing more votes than some candidates in legislative assemblies and panchayat elections.

How NOTA Works

  • Voting Mechanism: Selecting NOTA on EVM or ballot paper indicates rejection of all contesting candidates.
  • Vote Counting: Counted separately, does not affect election outcomes. The candidate with the highest votes wins, regardless of NOTA’s tally.

Purpose of NOTA

  • Expression of Dissatisfaction: Allows voters to formally express dissatisfaction with available candidates.
  • Accountability: Encourages political parties to nominate better candidates, responding to voter dissatisfaction.
  • Democratic Right: Reinforces freedom of expression, ensuring the right to reject unsuitable candidates.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/more-than-2-lakh-votes-nota-indore-9372026/



2.New Ramsar Sites: Nagi and Nakti Wetlands

  • Recognition: Nagi and Nakti Bird Sanctuaries in Bihar recognized as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention.

About the Wetlands:

  • Location: Jamui district, Bihar, nestled in Jhajha forest range.
  • Designation: Bird sanctuaries since 1984 for wintering migratory birds.
  • Wintering Grounds: Over 20,000 birds congregate, including:
    • Largest congregations of red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) on the Indo-Gangetic plain (Nagi).
    • Largest congregations of bar-headed geese (Anser Indicus) on the Indo-Gangetic plain (Nakti).
  • Habitat: Over 75 bird species, 33 fish species, and 12 aquatic plants.
  • Threatened Species: Indian elephant (Elephas Maximus Indicus) and Wallago Attu (vulnerable native catfish).

Ramsar Convention:

  • Goal: International treaty for wetland conservation (adopted in 1971).
  • Members: 172 countries (India included).
  • Most Ramsar Sites: UK (175), Mexico (144).
  • India’s Rank: Joint 3rd with China (after Nagi & Nakti addition).
  • Total Ramsar Sites in India: 82.

Interesting Facts:

  • Originally man-made wetlands developed for irrigation (Nakti Dam and Nagi River damming).

What is Ramsar Sites

  • Ramsar Sites are wetlands designated for international importance under the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty for wetland conservation adopted in 1971.
  • These wetlands meet specific criteria set by the convention, focusing on their ecological functions, biodiversity, and the presence of threatened species.

There are various criteria for Ramsar Site designation. Some key ones include:

  • Representing unique wetland types in a region.
  • Supporting populations of rare, vulnerable, or threatened plant and animal species.
  • Regularly supporting large numbers of waterfowl or fish populations.
  • Providing vital ecological services like flood control, water purification, and carbon storage.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/bihar-bird-sanctuaries-added-ramsar-list-9376849/



3.Nata Pratha

  • NHRC raised concerns about Nata Pratha, a practice likened to prostitution.

Under Nata Pratha:

    • Minor girls are sold by their families (Rajasthan, MP, UP, Gujarat)
    • Sold on stamp paper or similar, with no legal sanctity (marriage).

This practice:

    • Undermines well-being, rights, and potential of girls.
    • Can lead to gender-based violence and discrimination.

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC):

    • Established in 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA).
    • Works to protect and promote human rights in India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/nhrc-seeks-report-on-sale-of-underage-girls-as-part-of-nata-pratha/article68259587.ece



4.Biopharmaceutical Alliance

  • Launched: Bio International Convention 2024 (San Diego, US)
  • Members: India, South Korea, US, Japan, EU
  • Goal: Address drug supply chain disruptions experienced during COVID-19.
  • Focus: Building a resilient biopharmaceutical supply chain.
  • Activities:
    • Coordinating bio-policies, regulations, and R&D support.
    • Mapping the global pharmaceutical supply chain (raw materials and ingredients).
  • India’s Role:
    • National Biopharma Mission: Aims to make India globally competitive in biopharmaceuticals within a decade.
    • Focus: Affordable product development for improved healthcare standards.

Source: https://www.newsonair.gov.in/india-us-japan-south-korea-eu-launch-biopharmaceutical-alliance/



5.Dedicated Mental Health Helpline for Armed Forces

MoU Signed: Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW) and Ministry of Defence (MoD)

Goal: Establish a dedicated Tele-MANAS cell for the Armed Forces.

Focus: Address unique stressors faced by military personnel (operational environment, cultural challenges, regional conflicts).


  • Direct access to specialized mental healthcare for Armed Forces personnel and families.
  • Improved mental health and well-being.

About Tele-MANAS (Launched Oct 2022):

  • Free, nationwide tele-mental health services.
  • Toll-free helpline (14416) available 24/7 (also accessible via 1-800-891-4416).
  • Two-tier system:
    • Tier 1: State Tele-MANAS cells (initial support & counseling).
    • Tier 2: Specialists for physical/audio-visual consultations.
  • Integration with existing healthcare systems: e-Sanjeevani, Ayushman Bharat, mental health professionals.
  • Accessible to: Individuals with mental health issues,Families, Healthcare providers, Community volunteers.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=2022796



6. 2024 Environmental Performance Index

India’s Rank: 176th (highlights need for improvement in emissions reduction and environmental sustainability).

Top Performer: Estonia (1st place)

  • Reduced GHG emissions by 40% in the last decade through renewable energy initiatives.

Global Challenges:

  • Difficulty reducing emissions in hard-to-decarbonize industries.
  • Managing “paper parks” (protected areas failing to prevent ecosystem loss).

Limited Progress:

  • Only 5 countries on track for net zero by 2050: Estonia, Finland, Greece, Timor-Leste, UK.

International Cooperation Needed:

  • Low rankings for developing countries (Vietnam, Pakistan, Laos, Myanmar, Bangladesh) highlight the need for global support for sustainable development.


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