Prelims Exam

  1. Satpula Dam: A Historical Marvel of Delhi
  • Built in 1340 by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq, this dam served a dual purpose:
    • Reliable source of water for irrigation.
    • Defense against intruders.
  • Constructed using Delhi quartz, it exemplifies Tughlaq-era masonry skills.
  • Centuries later, the water source was diverted, but the structure remains a testament to its era.
  1. Skin Pigmentation: A Complex Mix of Genes and Environment
  • Skin, the largest human organ, gets its color from melanin produced by melanocytes.
  • Sunlight exposure is considered a major driver of skin color variation across populations.
  • Genes, migration patterns, and environment all interact to create diverse skin tones.
  • A recent study has identified a wider range of genes influencing pigmentation.
  1. Underpriced Onion Exports: Indian Farmers Feel the Pinch
  • India, the world’s second-largest onion producer, exports onions during two harvesting cycles.
  • Major onion varieties include Agrifound Dark Red, NHRDF Red, and Pusa Ratnar.
  • Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat are the leading onion producers.
  • Exports go to Bangladesh, Malaysia, UAE, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Indonesia.
  • However, underpriced exports to the UAE have resulted in windfall profits for some importers, causing grievance among Indian farmers and traders.
    • Windfall profits are unexpected gains due to factors like shortages.

4.Phanigiri: A Buddhist Gem Unearthed in Telangana

  • Phanigiri is a significant Buddhist site located in Telangana.
  • Situated on a hilltop along the ancient Dakshinapatha trade route.
  • Excavations revealed a Mahastupa, apsidal halls, votive stupas, viharas, and platforms with staircases.
  • Recent discovery of a coin hoard from the Ikshvaku period (3rd-4th centuries CE) sheds light on the site’s historical significance.
  • The Ikshvakus were Shaivite rulers, but Buddhism flourished under their reign.

5.Gape Limitation: Shaping Predator-Prey Dynamics in Ecology

  • The concept of gape limitation refers to a predator’s physical limitation in consuming prey that fits within its mouth.
  • This principle determines predator-prey relationships: small predators target small prey, while larger predators can consume bigger prey.
  • Gape limitations influence animal evolution:
    • Prey may evolve increased speed or size to escape smaller-mouthed predators.
    • Predators may evolve larger mouths to tackle bigger prey.
  • Understanding gape limitations is crucial for predicting how changes in ecosystems (predator/prey populations, habitat alterations, environmental disturbances) can impact their structure and function.


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