Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes


1.QS World University Ranking 2025

  • QS Ranking: Established in 2004, most reputed global university ranking. Evaluates nearly 1,500 universities across 104 locations.
  • Top Global Institutions:
    • 1st: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (13th consecutive year)
    • 2nd: Imperial College London (up from 6th)
    • 3rd (Joint): Harvard University & University of Oxford
  • Performance of Indian Universities:
    • 7 out of Top 10 Indian ranks held by IITs (Bombay, Delhi, Kharagpur, Madras, Kanpur, Guwahati)
    • IIT Bombay: Most Improved (149 in 2024 to 118 in 2025)
    • University of Delhi: Significant Improvement (407 in 2024 to 328 in 2025), 7th among Indian universities

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/iit-bombay-rises-31-places-to-rank-118th-in-qs-world-university-rankings-2025/article68254358.ece




2.China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

  • Launched in 2015, CPEC is a 3,000 km network of infrastructure projects connecting China’s Xinjiang to Pakistan’s Gwadar Port.
  • Estimated cost: $62 billion.
  • Part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) – a strategy to expand its global influence through infrastructure investment.
    • BRI aims to connect Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, Africa, and Europe.
  • CPEC’s route through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) violates India’s sovereignty as India claims PoK.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-global/as-shehbaz-visits-china-the-hope-and-unfulfilled-promise-of-cpec-9376912/




3.India-Norway Cooperation

  • Strong political ties and institutional mechanisms between India and Norway.
  • Collaboration in the Blue Economy (marine & maritime development) a key focus.
  • Recent trade deal with EFTA (European Free Trade Association) including Norway a major boost.
    • EFTA: Intergovernmental organization of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway & Switzerland promoting free trade.
    • EFTA-India trade exceeded $6.1 billion in 2022.
    • India imports chemicals from EFTA, while exporting machinery & pharmaceuticals.
  • Norway expects India-Norway cooperation to significantly increase in the next decade.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-norway-cooperation-will-witness-manifold-increase-in-the-next-10-years-says-norwegian-ambassador-may-elin-stener/article68259297.ece#:~:text=%E2%80%9CWe%20have%20been%20partnering%20with,in%20the%20concentration%20of%20microplastics.%E2%80%9D




4.Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

  • Caused by Influenza A viruses, classified by origin host (e.g., H5N1 – bird flu, H1N1 – swine flu).
  • Primarily infects birds but can spread to humans (zoonotic disease).
  • H5N1 subtype particularly concerning due to past human outbreaks.
  • Symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, severe respiratory distress (advanced cases).
  • Prevention:
    • Avoid contact with sick/dead birds.
    • Thoroughly cook poultry products.
    • Implement strong surveillance for early detection and response.
  • Recent Case: WHO confirmed death in Mexico from H5N2 strain (not previously seen in humans).

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/human-death-h5n2-bird-mexico-9378612/




Science and Technology

5.TRISHNA Mission (ISRO-French Collaboration)

Mission Goal: High-resolution monitoring of Earth’s surface for resource assessment.

Space Agencies Involved: ISRO (India) & CNES (France)

Key Features:

  • High spatial & temporal resolution data on Earth’s surface temperature, emissivity, and radiation.
  • Monitors energy & water budgets of continental biospheres.
  • Observes water quality & dynamics in coastal & inland waters.


  • Address water & food security challenges:
    • Quantify terrestrial water stress & use.
    • Monitor evapotranspiration for efficient water management.
    • Track impacts of climate change.
  • Assess urban heat islands & thermal anomalies (volcanic activity, geothermal resources).
  • Monitor snowmelt runoff, glacier dynamics, and ice cover.
  • Provide data on:
    • Aerosol optical depth
    • Atmospheric water vapor
    • Cloud cover
  • Climate monitoring: Track droughts, permafrost changes, and evapotranspiration rates.

Source :  https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/isro-gives-details-on-indo-french-trishna-mission/article68255024.ece





6.Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) 2022-23 (MoSPI)

Key Findings:

  • Food Expenditure: Highest share in both rural (~46%) and urban (~39%) areas.
    • Rural: Highest spending on “milk & milk products” in Haryana (41.7% of food expenditure).
    • Urban: Highest spending on “milk & milk products” in Rajasthan (33.2% of food expenditure).
    • Kerala has the most significant spending on “egg, fish & meat” in rural areas (23.5% of food expenditure).
  • Non-food Expenditure: Increased significantly over the years (now >50%).
    • Top category: “conveyance” in both rural & urban areas across most states.
    • Followed by:
      • Durable goods
      • Miscellaneous goods
      • Entertainment
    • Medical expenses and fuel & light are also significant non-food expense categories.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/indian-households-spent-most-on-processed-food-haryana-rajasthan-opted-for-milk-9379003/



Science and Technology

7.Milgromian Dynamics (MOND) Theory

Proposed by: Mordehai Milgrom (1982)

Objective: Explain galactic rotation curves without dark matter by modifying Newtonian dynamics at low accelerations (weak gravity).


  • Predicts galaxy rotation curves well.
  • Explains some other astrophysical phenomena.


  • Fails to explain motions within galaxy clusters (lacks gravity on large scales).
  • Inaccurate for small bodies in the distant solar system (MOND doesn’t apply at specific distances).
  • Newtonian gravity prevails at scales below a light-year.

Dark Matter (Context):

  • Proposed to explain galactic motions requiring more gravity than visible mass allows.
  • Invisible matter with gravitational influence.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/with-bad-news-from-cassini-is-dark-matter-main-rival-theory-dead/article68254867.ece#:~:text=This%20has%20led%20to%20the,this%20theory%20is%20in%20trouble.




8.Onge Tribe

  • Population: 136 (recent birth brings a hopeful sign)
  • Location: Little Andaman Island, India (isolated island life)
  • Ancestry: Negrito (ancient lineage with unique characteristics)
  • Lifestyle: Semi-nomadic (traditionally move within their territory) – They rely on hunting, fishing, and gathering for food (deep connection to their environment).
  • Religion: Animistic (believe spirits inhabit nature) – Their reverence for the natural world is central to their way of life.
  • Customs:
    • Redden teeth (symbolic practice, white teeth associated with death)
    • Body ornamentation (decorative clay paint used for ceremonies and social gatherings)
  • Challenges:
    • Resettlement (forced relocation in the 1970s) – This resulted in loss of ancestral lands, impacting their traditional way of life.
    • Fertility issues (over 40% struggle to conceive) – This low fertility rate threatens the long-term survival of the tribe.

Source : https://theprint.in/india/andamans-onge-tribe-king-queen-welcome-baby-boy-population-now-136/2104280/




9.India’s Booming High Net-Worth Individuals (HNWIs) (Capgemini Report)

Surge in High Net-Worth Individuals (HNWIs):

  • India’s HNWI population is on a tear, with a 12.2% increase in 2023 compared to 2022. This translates to a total of 3.589 million HNWIs – a significant rise.
  • Their financial wealth is keeping pace, with a remarkable 12.4% growth in 2023. The collective wealth of Indian HNWIs now stands at a staggering $1.445 trillion.

India Leads APAC Growth:

  • The Asia-Pacific region is experiencing HNWI growth, but India stands out as a leader.
  • Compared to Australia (the other top performer), India boasts a higher growth rate in both HNWI wealth (12.4% vs 7.9%) and population (12.2% vs 7.8%).

Strong Economic Tailwinds:

  • India’s robust economic performance is a key driver of HNWI growth.
  • The unemployment rate has nearly halved (3.1% in 2023 vs 7% in 2022), and the economy continues to expand (7.3% growth in 2023).
  • A surging stock market (29% increase in market cap) and a healthy national savings rate (33.4% of GDP) further support this positive economic climate.

HNWI Wealth Management in Demand:

  • Capgemini’s Wealth Management division highlights the evolving needs of HNWIs.
  • With a dynamic economic landscape, effective wealth management strategies are becoming increasingly crucial.

Source : The Hindu

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