Prelims Exam


Glycemic Index and Diabetes

  • Lancet study confirms link between high glycemic index (GI) and type 2 diabetes.
  • Low GI diets may help prevent type 2 diabetes, especially for those with higher BMI.
  • Glycemic index (GI) ranks how quickly foods containing carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels.


Anti-Dumping Duty on Sodium Cyanide

  • Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR) recommends duty on imports from China, EU, Japan, Korea.
  • Anti-dumping duty protects domestic producers from unfairly priced foreign imports.
  • Sodium cyanide is used in gold/silver extraction, electroplating, and various industrial processes.
  • The duty will be in place for five years.


Forever Chemicals (PFAS)

  • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals used since the 1950s.
  • Found in non-stick cookware, upholstery, food packaging, and stain repellents.
  • Resistant to water, grease, and heat, but don’t break down in the environment.
  • Can contaminate water sources, bioaccumulate in wildlife, and cause health problems.
  • PFAS can be broken down with sodium hydroxide or incinerated at high temperatures (energy-intensive).

Pelagia Noctiluca (The Mauve Stinger Jellyfish)

  • Bioluminescent jellyfishalso known as the purple-striped jellyfish.
  • Found worldwide in tropical and warm seas.
  • Recent bloom reported on the Visakhapatnam coast (rare in East India).
  • Stings on both tentacles and bell can cause varying degrees of illness.
  • Jellyfish blooms can damage fisheries and tourism.

Criollo Cattle

  • Irish research suggests Criollo cattle are well-suited for a warming world.
  • Descended from Iberian breeds brought to the Americas.
  • Short, slick coat improves thermotolerance (withstands hot and humid weather).


  • Trillions of cicadas from Brood XIX and Brood XIII to emerge in the US Midwest and Southeast.
  • First time since 1803 these broods will appear together (known as a dual emergence).
  • Cicadas are insects with prominent eyes, short antennae, and membranous wings.
  • Found in tropical and temperate areas worldwide.
  • Known for their exceptionally loud songs produced by specialized organs.



Mangal Pandey


  • Sepoy in East India Company’s army, hanged by British in 1857.


  • From Awadh, a kingdom supplying soldiers to the British.
  • Awadh annexed by British in 1856, causing resentment.

The Incident:

  • Refused to use new Enfield rifles due to animal fat (beef/pork) in cartridges, seen as offensive to religious beliefs.
  • Mutinied and attacked his sergeant on March 29, 1857.
  • Court-martialed and hanged.


  • Sparked the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857.
  • Led to British reforms:
    • End of East India Company rule (1858).
    • Queen Victoria as Empress of India (1858).
    • New policies promising respect for religion.



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