Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Exam

1.Floating Solar Energy Technology Gains Traction in India

NHPC Signs MoU with Norwegian Company

  • NHPC, India’s largest hydropower developer, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with a Norwegian floating solar technology provider.
  • They will collaborate on demonstrating Ocean Sun’s floating solar technology using photovoltaic panels on hydro-elastic membranes.

About Floating Solar

  • Solar panels are installed on floating structures on water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, ponds).
  • First floating solar plant established in Japan (2007).
  • Growing trend in South Asia (India, Maldives, Bangladesh).
  • India has a potential capacity of 280-300 GW for floating solar but only a small fraction is currently installed.
    • Largest operational project in Telangana.


  • Utilizes unused water surfaces and increases solar panel efficiency due to water cooling.
  • Reduces water evaporation, conserving water resources.
  • Saves land compared to traditional ground-mounted solar farms.
    • Land can be used for agriculture or construction.

2.IREDA Granted Navratna Status

Navratna Status

  • Recognition for Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) in India.
  • Introduced in 1997 to promote global competitiveness.


  • Must hold Miniratna Category I Status and be listed under Schedule A of CPSEs.
  • Outstanding rating under MoU System for 3 out of 5 years.
  • Meet specific criteria in net profit, margins, manpower costs, etc.
  • Composite score of 60 or above across all criteria.


  • Financial Autonomy: Up to ₹1,000 crore investment per project without approval.
  • Operational Freedom: Form joint ventures, establish overseas subsidiaries, manage HR & capital expenditure.


  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency.
  • Public Financial Institution under Companies Act, 1956.
  • Registered as Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) with RBI.
  • Under Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
  • Motto: Energy for Ever
  • Objectives:
    • Finance renewable energy & energy efficiency projects.
    • Maintain leadership in renewable energy financing.
    • Increase market share through innovative financing.

3.Supreme Court Upholds Eggshell Skull Rule in Medical Negligence Case

Eggshell Skull Rule

  • Legal principle applied in civil litigation for personal injury.
  • Victim receives full compensation for losses even if a pre-existing condition makes them more susceptible to injury.
  • Defendant cannot escape liability for worsening a pre-existing condition due to negligence.
  • Applies to all types of injuries (physical, emotional, psychological).
  • Used to claim compensation for damages exceeding what was ordinarily anticipated.
  • Origin: Vosburg v. Putney (1891, US)

Case Summary

  • Supreme Court restored ₹5 lakh compensation awarded by a district forum in a medical negligence case.
  • Lower courts incorrectly applied the eggshell skull rule.

Civil Litigation

  • Legal disputes between parties seeking monetary damages or specific performance.
  • Does not involve criminal accusations.


4.Alok Shukla Wins Goldman Prize for Environmental Activism 

Alok Shukla Awarded

  • Alok Shukla, convenor of Chhattisgarh Bachao Andolan, received the 2024 Goldman Prize for Asia.

Goldman Environmental Prize

  • Recognizes individuals protecting the environment (often at personal risk).
  • Also known as the “Green Nobel”.
  • Awards grassroots environmental leaders working in local communities.
  • Established in 1990 to coincide with Earth Day.

Hasdeo Aranya Region

  • Sprawling forest in northern Chhattisgarh, known for biodiversity and coal deposits.
  • Located in Korba, Surajpur, and Sarguja districts with a large tribal population.
  • Hasdeo River, a tributary of Mahanadi, flows through the forest.
  • Largest un-fragmented forest in Central India with pristine Sal and teak trees.



  • Hyderabad Police seized 4,800 kg mangoes ripened with ethylene.

About Ethylene

  • Colorless gas with sweet odor and taste, lighter than air, flammable.
  • Natural hormone used in horticulture to ripen fruits (increases respiration rate).
  • Safer alternative to unsafe and banned ripeners like carbide gas.


 6.50 Years of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)

  • Launched by WHO in 1974, adopted by most countries.
  • Aims for universal access to vaccines throughout life.

India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

  • Launched in 1978 (based on EPI), renamed UIP in 1985.
  • Vaccinates against 11 diseases: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, rubella, TB, hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal disease, rotavirus diarrhea.


7.Patachitra Revival in West Bengal

First-generation Women Artists

  • Village of Naya, West Bengal
  • Sell Patachitra paintings online and gain international recognition
  • Inspiring future generations to continue the art form

Patachitra Painting

  • Traditional scroll painting from Odisha and West Bengal (12th century)
  • Sanskrit: Patta (cloth) + Chitra (picture)
  • Known for intricate details, mythological stories, and folktales
  • Depicts Hindu deities

Making Patachitra

  • Special canvas: layered cotton sarees with tamarind paste and clay powder
  • Natural colors (lamp soot, powdered conch shells)
  • No initial sketches, borders done first
  • Weeks/months to complete


8.International Criminal Court (ICC)

Why In News?

  • Israel is concerned about potential ICC arrest warrants for its government officials over war crimes against Hamas.

The International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • Investigates and prosecutes individuals for the gravest international crimes: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression.
  • Acts as a court of last resort, complementing, not replacing, national courts.


  • Established in 2002 based on the Rome Statute (1998).
  • Inspired by ad hoc tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.


  • 123 member countries.
  • Key non-members: China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Russia, US.
  • Palestine is a member state (2015).


  • Prosecutes crimes by nationals of member states or on their territory.


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