The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic 1: Reservation within Constitutional bound

GS-2 Mains Exam  : Polity 

Revision Notes

Question : Analyze the significance of landmark court cases like the Indra Sawhney Case and the Janhit Abhiyan Case in shaping reservation policies in India. How have these cases influenced the limitations and implementation of reservation?

  • Political Debate: A heated political debate surrounds reservation policies in India.
  • Constitution:
    • Aims for social justice and guarantees equality as a fundamental right (Articles 15 & 16).
    • Allows special provisions for advancement of disadvantaged groups (OBC, SC, ST).
  • Reservation Categories:
    • OBC (Other Backward Classes): Socially and educationally backward castes. States have varying reservation percentages.
    • SC (Scheduled Castes): Formerly untouchables.
    • ST (Scheduled Tribes): Adivasi communities.
    • MBC (Most Backward Classes): Implemented by some states.
  • Landmark Cases:
    • Indra Sawhney Case (1992): Upheld 27% reservation for OBCs. Caste considered a determinant of class. Economic criteria alone is insufficient.
    • Janhit Abhiyan Case (2022): Upheld 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS). Economic criteria can be a valid basis for reservation.
  • Reservation Limits:
    • Indra Sawhney Case: Set a 50% cap on reservations unless exceptional circumstances exist. (Current total: 49.5%)
    • Creamy Layer Exclusion: Excludes wealthy individuals from OBC benefits (income limit: ₹8 lakhs/year).
    • Parental Government Service Exclusion: Excludes children of certain government officials from OBC benefits.
  • Key Takeaways:
    • Reservation aims to address social inequality and promote social justice.
    • The balance between equality and affirmative action is a complex issue with ongoing debate. Landmark court cases have shaped reservation policies and their limitations.

Constitutional Stand on Reservation:

  • The Constituent assembly opposed reservation solely based on religion.
  • Constitution prohibits discrimination only based on religion under Articles 15 and 16.

Muslims and OBC Quota in Karnataka:

  • In Karnataka, all Muslim communities are included in the OBC quota, forming the basis of BJP’s current campaign.
  • Sub-categorization for Muslims within the OBC quota existed since 1995.
  • The four percent sub-categorization introduced in 1995 was later removed by the Basavaraj Bommai-led government.

Reservation for Backward Communities:

  • Muslim and Christian communities deemed socially and educationally backward are provided reservations under the OBC/MBC category.
  • Sub-categorization within the OBC/MBC quota for Muslim communities exists in states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

Constitutional Provisions:

  • The Constitution uses the term ‘socially and educationally backward classes,’ which encompasses backward communities from all religions.
  • The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950 specifies Hinduism, Sikhism, or Buddhism for SC membership, but no such requirement exists for STs.

The Way Forward:

  • Reservation aims at affirmative action to balance historical discrimination against OBCs, SCs, and STs.
  • The Rohini Commission was established to recommend sub-categorization among OBC castes, with its findings awaited.
  • Deliberations on suitable policies are necessary to ensure the benefits of reservation reach the extremely marginalized sections progressively.
  • The focus should be on achieving social justice while maintaining harmony with the equality guaranteed in the Constitution.



The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic 2: We need to stop the fear mongering on vaccines

GS-2 Mains Exam  : Health

Revision Notes

Question : Discuss the risk of Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) associated with COVID-19 vaccines. Analyze the significance of this risk in the context of public health decision-making.

Basic Concept

Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) is a serious condition that involves two main problems:

  • Blood clots (Thrombosis): These can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, abdomen, lungs, and legs. Blood clots can block blood flow and cause serious damage to organs.
  • Low blood platelet count (Thrombocytopenia): Platelets are cells in the blood that help it clot. When your platelet count is low, you have a higher risk of bleeding.

Here’s a breakdown of TTS:

  • Causes: TTS can be caused by certain medications, particularly some adenovirus vector COVID-19 vaccines like AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson. However, it’s important to remember the risk of TTS from these vaccines is extremely rare. Other causes of TTS are still being researched.
  • Symptoms: Symptoms can vary depending on where the blood clot is located. Some common symptoms include:
    • Severe headache
    • Blurred vision
    • Abdominal pain
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Back pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Leg pain or swelling
    • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Diagnosis: Doctors diagnose TTS based on symptoms, medical history, and tests like blood tests and imaging scans.
  • Treatment: Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blood clot.

Here are some additional points to remember about TTS:

  • It’s a very rare condition, even among people who receive the vaccines linked to it.
  • The benefits of vaccination against COVID-19 far outweigh the very small risk of TTS.
  • If you experience any of the symptoms listed above after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, seek immediate medical attention.

Back to the Editorial Topic

 TTS (Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome) Risk:

    • Occurs in young women (around 30 years old) at a very low frequency (1-2 per 100,000).
    • Estimated at 2-3 cases per million people vaccinated.
    • Significantly lower than the annual risk of dying in a road accident (10 per 100,000).
  • Covishield Benefit:
    • Over 80% protection against severe COVID-19.
    • Over 90% protection against death from COVID-19 (including Delta wave).
    • Corresponds to a mortality benefit of around 40 per 100,000.
    • Reduces disease severity, minimizing healthcare burden and long-term complications.
    • Vaccination reduces risk of heart attacks and strokes compared to unvaccinated individuals.

Similarities between Covishield and J&J Vaccine:

  • Both use recombinant DNA platform technology, potentially increasing TTS risk.
  • Both trigger production of antibodies similar to heparin-induced TTS.
  • Effective DNA vaccines might carry a small risk of autoimmune side effects.

Age and Risk:

  • Younger individuals (around 30 for TTS, young males for myocarditis) seem more susceptible to specific side effects.
  • Older individuals and those with diabetes benefit most from vaccines but have lower risk of these side effects.

Killed Virus vs. DNA/mRNA Vaccines:

  • Killed virus vaccines are safer but provide less protection against severe disease and death (e.g., elderly deaths in Hong Kong’s Omicron wave).

India and Vaccine Development:

  • India lacks data on critical side effects like TTS from Covishield (nearly 1 billion doses administered).
  • Covovax (protein-subunit vaccine) could have been a better option for booster shots.

COVID-19 Situation:

  • SARS-CoV2 continues to circulate and evolve, causing silent surges like the JN.1 variant in January 2024 (detected in sewage).


  • Vaccines are highly effective public health tools.
  • Fear-mongering about vaccines should stop.
  • India’s vaccination drive saved countless lives.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *