Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes

1.India to Sign Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) Agreement


  • India to sign the BBNJ Agreement – led by the Ministry of Earth Sciences.

About the Agreement

  • Also known as the High Seas Treaty.
  • Sets rules for sustainable use of marine biodiversity in international waters.
  • Parties cannot claim ownership of marine resources in the high seas and ensure fair sharing of benefits.
  • High Seas: International waters beyond national jurisdiction (Exclusive Economic Zone).

UNCLOS & BBNJ Agreement

  • BBNJ Agreement is the third implementing agreement under UNCLOS (alongside Fish Stocks Agreement & Mineral Resources Agreement).
  • Agreed in March 2023, open for signature for 2 years from Sep 2023.
  • Becomes international law 120 days after 60th ratification (91 signed, 8 ratified as of June 2024).

UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)

  • Adopted in 1982, entered into force in 1994.
  • Governs all uses of the world’s oceans and their resources.
  • Established International Seabed Authority.
  • Over 160 countries have ratified UNCLOS.


2.Khandagiri & Udayagiri Caves (Odisha)


  • Visited by President Droupadi Murmu.


  • Rock-cut caves built around 2nd century BC by King Kharavela (Meghavahana dynasty).
  • Discovered by British officer Andrew Sterling (19th century).
  • Originally 117 caves, only 33 survive today (18 in Udayagiri, 15 in Khandagiri).
  • Purpose: Shelters and meditation spaces for Jain monks.

Major Caves (Udayagiri)

  • Hathigumpha (Elephant Cave): Inscriptions of King Kharavela.
  • Rani Gumpha (Queen Cave): Double-storeyed with intricate carvings.
  • Ganesha Gumpha: Jain Tirthankar and other sculptures.
  • Vyaghra Gumpha (Tiger Cave): Entrance shaped like a tiger’s head and throat.

Major Caves (Khandagiri)

  • Barabhuji Gumpha: Twelve-armed Sasana Devi and Tirthankar sculptures.
  • Trishula Gumpha: Twenty-four Jain Tirthankaras carved on walls.
  • Ambika Gumpha: Yaksha and Yakshini figures for each Tirthankara.


3.Zombie Startups

In the News

  • Rising concern over “zombie startups”.

What are they?

  • Companies failing to grow or become profitable.
  • Stagnant progress and dwindling resources.
  • Struggle to attract investment or generate revenue.
  • May distort market dynamics by holding onto space and resources.


  • Can slow down overall entrepreneurial ecosystem growth.

Looking Ahead

  • Proactive measures and collaboration can turn them into learning experiences for future innovation.


4.Birlestik-2024 Military Exercise


  • First-ever joint military exercise by Central Asian nations without Russia and China.


  • Joint military exercise (aka Union 2024) in Mangistau region, Kazakhstan.
  • Focuses on regional cooperation, interoperability, and military readiness.
  • Participating nations: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (Turkmenistan absent).
  • Significance:
    • Builds stronger regional security partnerships.
    • Fosters mutual understanding and promotes peace.
    • Prepares armed forces for security challenges.



5.LGM-35A Sentinel: US Next-Gen ICBM

Context: Facing cost overruns triggering a Nunn-McCurdy breach.

About the Missile:

  • Replaces LGM-30 Minuteman III (1970s).
  • Developed by Northrop Grumman for USAF.
  • W87-1 thermonuclear warhead, 5,500+ km range.
  • Advanced launch, flight, and command systems.
  • Secure warhead maintenance.


  • Modernize US ICBM fleet for credible deterrence.
  • Maintain strategic stability and strong defense posture.

Key Features:

  • Modernization: Replaces aging Minuteman III missiles.
  • Technological Advancements: Enhanced precision, reliability, survivability.
  • Strategic Importance: Critical component of US nuclear triad (second-strike capability).


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *