Science and Technology


What is Piezoelectricity?

  • The Piezoelectric Effect: Ability of certain materials to generate electric charge under mechanical stress.
  • Discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Paul-Jacques Curie.

Piezoelectric Principle

  • Caused by the unusual crystal structures of some materials.
  • Application of stress creates asymmetry in charges, generating a small electric current.
  • Some materials exhibit the inverse effect (electric current causing mechanical deformation).


  • Direct Piezoelectric Effect:
    • Pressure sensors
    • Accelerometers
    • Acoustic devices (microphones, phonograph pickups)
  • Inverse Piezoelectric Effect:
    • Wave filters in telephones


Curative Petition


  • Introduced by the Supreme Court in Rupa Ashok Hurra vs Ashok Hurra and Anr (2002).
  • Last resort to seek justice from the Supreme Court for a perceived wrong in its decision.
  • Not prescribed in the Constitution.


  • Only after a review plea dismissal by the Supreme Court.
  • Circulated to a bench of three senior-most judges (including judges from the original case, if available).
  • If a majority agrees, the petition is sent to the original bench (if possible).




  • US hand sanitizer recall due to toxic methanol content (health risks like nausea, coma, even death).

About Methanol

  • Simplest alcohol (CH3OH), also known as methyl alcohol.
  • Chemical building block in various products (plastics, paints, car parts, construction materials).
  • Clean energy resource (fuels cars, trucks, etc.).

Health Risks

  • Nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision
  • Coma, seizures, permanent blindness
  • Permanent damage to central nervous system
  • Death


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