Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes



Science and Technology

1. Microalgae

  • Group of autotrophic microorganisms living in various ecosystems (marine, freshwater, soil).
  • Microscopic aquatic organisms, distinct from plants.
  • Grow in water, absorb nutrients directly (no roots).
  • Some species harmful, others offer valuable products.

Recent Study by CSIR-IICT:

  • Identified Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF) from microalgae as a promising protein supplement.
  • CGF offers an alternative protein source for human and animal diets.
  • Benefits extend beyond nutrition, promoting overall health and immunity.
  • Studies show CGF inclusion in poultry diets improves egg quality.

Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF):

  • Protein-rich extract from microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana.
  • Found exclusively in Chlorella’s cell nucleus, produced during photosynthesis.
  • Rich in various beneficial components: peptides, amino acids, vitamins, minerals.
  • Particularly rich in essential amino acids, vital for human and animal health (not self-synthesized).



Science and Technology

2. Portable Optical Atomic Clocks

Traditional Atomic Clocks:

  • Use Caesium-133
  • Highly stable and define the second
  • Operate at microwave frequencies (billions of ticks per second)
  • Bulky, power-intensive, fragile, and expensive

Optical Atomic Clocks (Next Generation):

  • Operate at optical frequencies (tens of trillions of ticks per second)
  • Extremely precise (10 femtoseconds after a day)
  • More complex and delicate than microwave clocks

Portable Optical Atomic Clock:

  • Uses iodine-based system with molecular iodine
  • Leverages robust and compact lasers (common in telecommunication)
  • Less accurate than lab versions (gains/loses second every 9.1 million years)
  • Most accurate timekeeping device for maritime use

Why are Optical Atomic Clocks Different?

  • Higher Resonance Frequency: Enables more accurate measurement of smaller time increments.
  • Narrower Linewidths: Allows for precise tuning of the frequency for higher accuracy.
  • Strontium Atoms: Commonly used for their narrow linewidths and stable transitions.

Significance of Optical Atomic Clocks:

  • Higher Frequency: Uses visible light for a more precise measurement (50,000 times higher than microwave).
  • Greater Stability and Accuracy: Expected deviation of 1 second in 15 billion years.
  • Applications: Improved GPS, deep-space probe tracking, tests of general relativity, physical constant measurements.
  • Maritime Navigation: Enables precise timekeeping at sea for enhanced safety and efficiency.




3. Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary

Why in News ?

  • The Madhya Pradesh government has completed preparations for its ambitious cheetah reintroduction project at Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary,which is slated to be the second home for cheetahs in India after Kuno National Park

About Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary

  • Gandhisagar sanctuary is located on western border of Malwa plateaus along the banks of the mighty Chambal river. 
  • Total area of Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary is 368.62 sq. km
  • It spreads into two districts Mandsaur and Neemuch
  • Its Northern boundary is the Interstate boundary of M.P. and Rajasthan.
  • It is known for some rare wildlife species like Wild Dogs (Dholes), Chinkara, Leopard, Otter, Mugger crocodile.




4. Donanemab: A New Alzheimer’s Drug

Syllabus: GS2/ Health

Why in News ?

  • The FDA unanimously voted that the benefits of Donanemaboutweigh the risks in treating Alzheimer disease. 

About Donanemab

  • The drug, made by Eli Lilly is a monoclonal antibody that targets amyloid beta protein plaques in the brain, one of the defining features of Alzheimer’s disease. 
  • Donanemab aims to remove these plaques and slow the progression of the disease. However, it has side effects such as brain swelling or bleeding.
  • Other similar amyloid-fighting drugs approved by the FDA are Leqembi and Biogen.

Alzheimer Disease

  • Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorderthat affects millions worldwide.
    • An estimated 4% of adults aged 60 and older in India live with dementia, translating to approximately 8.8 million individuals. 
  • It primarily targets the brain, leading to a range of debilitating symptoms that impact memory, cognition, behavior, and overall daily functioning.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause ofdementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. It poses a significant burden on individuals, families, and healthcare systems.
  • There is no cure for Alzheimer’s diseaseat present, there are several treatment options available that can help manage symptoms.




5. Schengen Countries

Syllabus: GS2/IR

Why in News ?

  • A 12 per cent hike in the Schengen visa fee comes into effect. The EU attributes the increase to both inflation and growing civil worker wages.


  • Schengen visa allows the holder to travel freely in the Schengen Area comprising 29 European countries, for short stays of a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period. The visas are not purpose-bound, but they do not grant the right to work.
  • The Schengen Area is a zone of 29 European countries that have abolished passport and other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area is named after the Schengen Treaty, which was signed in 1985and entered into force in 1995. 
  • The countries in the Schengen Area have a joint agreement on the free movement of people, goods, and services, and have abolished visa requirements for citizens of other Schengen countries.
  • Schengen countries account for around 20 per cent of India’s outbound traffic.




6. JIMEX – 24

Why in News ?

  • The bilateral Japan – India Maritime Exercise 2024 (JIMEX 24) commenced at Yokosuka in Japan.


  • It is theeighth edition of JIMEX, since its inception in 2012.
  • The Indian Navy (IN) is being represented byINS Shivalik and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is being represented by the Guided Missile Destroyer JS Yugiri.
  • It provides an opportunity to learn from each other’s best practices and facilitates operational interactions between India and Japan. 
  • The exercise also reaffirms their shared commitment towards maritime security in the Indo-Pacific region.

Other exercises between India and Japan

  • Dharma Guardian: Bilateral exercise between the Indian Army (IA) and the Japan Ground Self Defence Force (JGSDF).
  • Veer Guardian: Bilateral exercise between the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Japan Air Self Defence Force (JASDF).
  • Malabar Exercise: Multilateral exercisebetween the navy’s of India, Japan, USA and Australia.




7. Xylitol

Why in News ?

  • Recent study mentioned that the popular artificial sweetener Xylitolis linked to higher cardiovascular issues including heart attack and stroke.
    • In 2023, the study found similar results for another low-calorie sweetener called 

About Xylitol

  • Xylitol is a natural sugar alcohol found in plants, including many fruits and vegetables. It has a sweet taste and is often used as a sugar substitute.
  • Xylitol is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water. The artificial sweetener commonly used in toothpaste and sugar-free chewing gum.
  • It can be found naturally or artificially produced. 




8. Lipulekh Pass

Why in News ?

  • Indian traders are demanding the resumption of border trade with China through Lipulekh pass which was closed during Covid-19 pandemic.

About Lipulekh Pass

  • Lipulekh Pass is located in the Kumaon regionof Uttarakhand, India, near the tri junction of India, China, and Nepal.
  • The pass serves as a route for pilgrims traveling to Kailash Mansarovar in Tibet. It is also one of the important points connecting India and Tibet, along with other passes like Nathu La and Shipki La.
  • Nepal claims that the pass lies within its territory, while India argues that it is part of the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
  • In 2020, India inaugurated a road connecting Dharchula in Uttarakhand to Lipulekh Pass.

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