Prelims Exam

Short Notes or Revison Notes


  • Introduced by Dr. Daniel Belsky (Columbia University) to study aging.
  • Aims to identify and target the root causes of age-related diseases.

Geroscience and Ageing

  • Blood test to determine aging rate:
    • Studies methylation in seniors’ DNA to identify a marker called ‘gerozyme’.
  • Potential interventions:
    • Drugs like metformin to target ‘gerozyme’.
    • Inhibiting the enzyme TORC1 to improve immunity in elderly.
    • Balanced diet for reducing inflammation and promoting brain health.

2.Zero FIR

  • FIR registered for an offense committed outside the station’s jurisdiction.
  • Transferred to the relevant police station for investigation.
  • Introduced based on the Justice Verma Committee recommendations (2012 Nirbhaya case).
  • Purpose: Speedy action for victims by ensuring timely FIR registration.


  • Digital publishing of someone’s private information (address, phone number, email, medical records, etc.).
  • Enables online harassment and exploitation by remote individuals.
  • Information often obtained through illegal hacking or theft.
  • Social media platforms bound by India’s IT Rules for addressing cybercrime complaints.


  • The science of materials at extremely low temperatures (below -153°C).
  • Refrigeration techniques used to achieve such temperatures.
  • Pioneered by Prof. Kamerlingh Onnes (University of Leiden) for liquefying gases (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium).
  • Deals with the liquefaction of gases encountered as everyday elements.
  • Liquid helium and nitrogen commonly used as cryogenic fluids for cooling.

Applications of Cryogenics

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medical diagnostics uses cryogenic fluids to cool magnets.
  • ISRO’s CE20 cryogenic engine for powering Gaganyaan missions’ LVM3 launch vehicle.

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