India’s Disability Law

  • Definition of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)
    • Long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments hindering full participation.
    • Reduced PWD population from 2.2% in 2011 to 1% between 2019-2021.
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 (RPWD Act)
    • Ensures equality, dignity, and integrity for PWDs, replacing the 1995 Act.
    • Compliance with UNCRPD, ratified by India in 2007.
    • Evolving definition of disability with 21 types covered, and more can be added.
    • Penalties for offenses against PWDs, with Special Courts designated for such cases.
  • Challenges and Issues
    • Social Stigma: Disability viewed as shameful, hindering public integration.
    • Institutional Failures: Lack of arrangements in education and government services.
    • Illiteracy: Isolation compounded by illiteracy, constituting a double disadvantage.
    • Unemployment: Vulnerable to job losses during recessions, facing discrimination.
    • Poor Implementation: 2016 guidelines not effectively implemented, lacking enforcement.
    • Lack of Awareness: Inconsistent accessibility standards, insufficient budgetary allocation.
  • Measures Needed
    • Shift from ‘For’ to ‘By’ PWD approach, ensuring active participation.
    • Comprehensive inclusive policies addressing social, economic, and gender dimensions.
    • Collaboration with private sector for employment opportunities.
    • Attitudinal shift through projects like SPARK by ILO.
    • Educational reforms for better integration and empowerment.
    • Implementation of PWD-friendly infrastructure in public and private projects.
    • Job-oriented training programs and recruitment of qualified professionals.
  • Government Schemes and Initiatives
    1. Harmonised Guidelines for Universal Accessibility 2021.
    2. Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities.
    3. ‘Divyang’ campaign to change societal attitudes.
    4. Accessible India Campaign for barrier-free environment.
    5. Sugamya Bharat app for feedback on accessibility.
    6. Unique Disability Identity Project (UDID) for certification.
    7. Divya Kala Shakti scheme for cultural participation.
    8. Assistance to Disabled Persons for Aids and Appliances Scheme (ADIP).

Code to Check Unethical Drug Practices

  • Uniform Code for Pharmaceuticals Marketing Practices (UCPMP) 2024
    • Requires marketing approval before promotion, restricts use of ‘safe’.
    • Prohibits free drug samples to unqualified individuals.
    • Bars gifts to healthcare professionals, unless part of educational programs.
    • Forbids comparison with other brands without consent.
    • Allows educational material up to Rs 1,000 per item, monitored by Ethics Committees.
  • Pharma-Doctor Nexus
    • Includes giving freebies to doctors to influence prescriptions.
    • Raises concerns of conflict of interest, patient trust, and healthcare costs.
  • Challenges
    • Conflict of interest compromising medical decisions.
    • Erosion of patient trust due to perceived influence.
    • Potential increase in healthcare costs.
    • Breach of professional ethics and integrity.
    • Regulatory compliance issues and legal consequences.
    • Negative impact on public perception of healthcare profession.
  • Government Measures
    • MCI guidelines emphasizing professional independence.
    • NPPA monitoring pharmaceutical prices and trade practices.
    • Collaboration with medical associations for ethical guidelines.

Sabarmati Gandhi Ashram Redevelopment Project

  • Historical Significance
    • Founded by Gandhi in 1917, cradle of major independence movements.
    • Setting for Champaran Satyagraha, Dandi March, and Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • Redevelopment Plan
    • Based on 1949 aerial image and documented accounts.
    • Includes ‘Mohan to Mahatma Park’, herbal garden, meditation hall, and dhyan kendra.

GI Tag to Majuli Masks and Chandi Tarakasi

  • Majuli Masks of Assam
    • Traditional masks used in ‘Bhaonas’ (theatrical performances) under neo-Vaishnavite tradition.
    • Made of bamboo, clay, cloth, wood, etc., depicting gods, demons, animals.
    • Introduced by Srimanta Sankardeva in 15th-16th century.
    • Categories include Mukha Bhaona, Lotokoi, and Cho Mukha.
    • Integral part of Sankardev tradition, used in Borgeet, Sattriya, and Bhaona.
  • Chandi Tarakasi (Silver Filigree Work)
    • Super-finely designed art-wire in silver and gold from Cuttack, Odisha.
    • ‘Tarakasi’ combines ‘Tara’ (wire) and ‘Kasi’ (design) in Odia.
    • Practiced for centuries, especially under Mughal patronage.
    • Utilizes silver wires or foils for jewellery and showpieces.

Savitribai Phule

  • About
    • India’s first woman teacher, challenged oppressive social norms.
    • Born in Maharashtra in 1831, educated by husband Jyotirao Phule.
    • Pioneered girls’ education, opened school in Pune in 1848.
    • Advocated for women’s rights, inter-caste marriages, widow remarriage.
    • Established Satyashodhak Samaj for social equity.
    • Involved in relief work during famines and plagues.
    • Published poetry and literary works advocating social reform.

Oath Ceremony of Chief Minister

  • Constitutional Provisions
    • Governor appoints CM as per convention, leader of majority party.
    • Governor may exercise discretion in hung assemblies.
    • CM can be from either house of state legislature.
    • Non-member can be CM for 6 months, must be elected thereafter.
  • Oath Ceremony
    • Administered by Governor as per forms prescribed in Constitution.
    • Formal pledge to discharge duties faithfully.
  • Powers and Functions
    • Advises Governor on legislative matters.
    • Heads State Legislative Assembly.
    • Recommends assembly dissolution to Governor.
    • Acts as vice-chairman of zonal council.

Yaounde Declaration

  • About
    • Signed by 11 African health ministers to end malaria deaths.
    • Africa bears 94% of global malaria cases and 95% of deaths.

Vajra Sentinel System

  • About
    • Contract signed for ‘Vajra Sentinel’ anti-drone system for IAF.
    • Utilizes passive RF sensor technology for detection and jamming.
    • Core sensor employs AI and computer vision for precise identification and classification of drones.

Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2023: SIPRI

  • India’s Arms Trend
    • Top arms importer for 2019-23, with a 4.7% increase compared to 2014-18.
    • Russia remains primary supplier, but its share decreased below 50% for the first time since 1960-64.
  • Global Trend
    • Top five arms exporters: USA, France, Russia, China, Germany.
    • Top five arms importers: India, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Ukraine, Pakistan.
    • Nine of top 10 importers in Asia, Oceania, or Middle East.
  • Analysis
    • Geopolitical tensions with Pakistan and China drive India’s focus on military strength.
    • Bureaucratic hurdles delay acquisitions, leading to heavy reliance on imports.
    • Nascent domestic arms industry struggles, necessitating imports.
    • India aims to diversify suppliers but faces challenges.


  • Independent research institute founded in 1966 by Swedish parliament.
  • Focus on international peace, security, arms control, disarmament.
  • Funded by government grants, private donations, and project-based funding.
  • Produces SIPRI Yearbook and other reports on global military expenditure, arms transfers, etc.
  • Based in Stockholm, Sweden, with global influence.

Bharat Shakti Exercise

  • Tri-service military exercise showcasing indigenous defence capabilities.
  • Displayed various indigenous weapon systems and operational capabilities.
  • Demonstrated self-reliance in defence manufacturing and commitment to safeguarding borders.
  • Simulated realistic, integrated operations across land, air, sea, cyber, and space domains.

Thermonuclear Fusion

  • Process combining light atomic nuclei to form heavier nucleus, releasing energy.
  • Requires extreme temperatures and pressures.
  • Challenges include sustaining the reaction and maintaining high temperatures.
  • Leading fusion research projects include ITER, stellarators, and alternative concepts.


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