Daily Current Affairs 

Prelims Exam 

To The Point Notes


1.East Sundarbans Fires

Location: Part of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in Bangladesh.

Problem: Frequent fires during the dry season.


  • Reduced water inflow in canals
  • Low elevation of the region
  • Dry seasons
  • Climate change
  • Lack of proper management

About Sundarbans

  • World’s largest mangrove forest, shared by India and Bangladesh.
  • Rich in flora and fauna, including endangered species.


  • Royal Bengal tigers (only mangrove habitat with significant population)
  • Northern River Terrapin (Critically Endangered)
  • Irrawaddy Dolphin (Endangered)
  • Fishing Cat (Vulnerable)
  • Horseshoe crabs
  • Kingfishers


  • Over 78 species of mangroves (richest in the world)
  • Named after the Sundari mangrove plant

Significance of Sundarbans:

  • Protects coasts from storms, cyclones, and saltwater intrusion
  • Provides habitat for fish and shellfish
  • Supports the region’s fisheries

Conservation Efforts:

  • UNESCO World Heritage Sites (parts in India and Bangladesh)
  • Ramsar Wetland of International Importance

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/why-are-bangladesh-s-sunderbans-catching-fire-reduced-water-inflow-increasing-dry-areas-may-be-the-cause-96184



2.Dengue Vaccine TAK-003 Gets WHO Prequalification

Good News:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified TAK-003, a second vaccine for dengue.

About TAK-003:

  • Developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals (Japan).
  • Live-attenuated vaccine with weakened dengue virus strains (all 4 serotypes).
  • Builds immunity without causing the disease.

Who Can Get It?

  • Children aged 6-16 years in high-burden dengue areas.
  • Administered in 2 doses, 3 months apart (as per WHO).


  • UK, Brazil, Argentina, Indonesia, and Thailand.

Dengue Disease:

  • Mosquito-borne, potentially life-threatening.
  • 100-400 million cases estimated globally each year.
  • 3.8 billion people at risk in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
  • Dengue cases likely to increase due to climate change and urbanization.

First Dengue Vaccine (Dengvaxia):

  • Live recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine.
  • Requires pre-vaccination screening.
  • Limited age range and geographic focus.

WHO Prequalification:

  • Assesses vaccine quality, safety, and efficacy.
  • Ensures adherence to international standards.
  • Facilitates wider distribution and public health program use.

Source :  https://www.who.int/news/item/15-05-2024-who-prequalifies-new-dengue-vaccine#:~:text=A%20new%20vaccine%20for%20dengue,the%20virus%20that%20cause%20dengue.



3.State of Emergency in New Caledonia

Reason: Protests erupt over bill granting voting rights to French residents on the island.

Kanak Concerns: Marginalization of their votes and impact on independence aspirations.

About New Caledonia:

  • French overseas territory in the Pacific Ocean (east of Australia).
  • Indigenous Kanaks (Melanesians) inhabited the island for thousands of years.
  • French colonization began in 1853, leading to a significant French population.

Nouméa Accord (1998): Granted limited autonomy to New Caledonia.

Referendums on Independence:

  • Three referendums held in 2018, 2020, and 2021.
  • Majority voted against independence in all three.


  • 41% Kanak
  • 24% European origin (mostly French)

Political Divide:

  • Kanaks favor independence.
  • European and immigrant groups prefer French rule.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-global/riots-emergency-new-caledonia-france-9333476/



4.Supreme Court Judgment on Property Acquisition


  • SC emphasized safeguards needed before the State acquires private property.
  • Aims to protect private property from arbitrary takeover for public purposes.
  • Fair procedures and property owner rights are upheld under the Constitution.

Right to Property:

  • Previously a fundamental right under Articles 31 & 19(1)(f).
  • Downgraded to a constitutional right by the 44th Amendment Act (1978).
  • Not a basic structure of the Constitution (Jilubhai Nanbhai Khachar case).

Key Highlights of the Judgement:

  • Right to Property as a Constitutional Right:
    • SC acknowledges property right as a constitutional right, with human rights implications.
  • Article 300A:
    • Procedural justice is crucial for acquiring private property for public use with compensation.
    • “Authority of law” extends beyond just the State’s power of eminent domain.
    • A mere law authorizing property acquisition isn’t sufficient.
  • Seven Procedural Rights:
    • Right to notice (State informing owner of acquisition intent).
    • Right to be heard (State considering owner’s objections).
    • Right to a reasoned decision (State informing owner of decision).
    • State demonstrating acquisition for a purely public purpose.
    • Right to fair compensation.
    • State conducting acquisition efficiently within timeframes.
    • Right of conclusion (acquisition process leading to property vesting with the State).


  • Clarifies State’s obligations and strengthens procedural protections for property owners.
  • Reinforces constitutional principles of justice and fairness in property rights.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/state-cannot-take-right-to-private-property-away-without-following-fair-procedure-sc/article68183265.ece


Science and Technology

5.NASA’s PREFIRE Polar Mission: Launching May 22nd

Mission: Polar Radiant Energy in the Far-InfraRed Experiment (PREFIRE)

Goal: Reveal the full spectrum of heat loss from Earth’s poles for the first time, improving climate models.

Launch: May 22nd, New Zealand


  • Two CubeSats, the size of shoeboxes.
  • Equipped with thermal infrared spectrometers.
  • Asynchronous near-polar orbits, overlapping coverage near poles.
  • Instruments use thermocouples (like thermostats) to measure radiant energy.

Mission Objectives:

  • Understand why the Arctic warms faster than the planet.
  • Measure far-infrared heat emission from snow, ice, and clouds.
  • Improve predictions of climate change, sea level rise, and heat exchange between Earth and space.
  • Anticipated impacts on ice sheet melting, atmospheric temperatures, and global weather.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/nasa-prefire-mission-polar-earth-climate-9333490/



6.Venezuela: First Nation in Modern Times to Lose All Glaciers

  • Venezuela is thought to be the first nation in modern times to have completely lost all of its glaciers.
  • Located on the northern coast of South America.
  • Total area: 916,445 sq.km (353,841 sq mi).
  • Bordered by:
    • Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to the north
    • Guyana to the east
    • Brazil to the south
    • Colombia to the southwest and west
  • Capital: Caracas


  • Diverse landscape including:
    • Northern Andean Mountain chains
    • Interior highlands
    • Orinoco River basin with Llanos (plains)
    • Lake Maracaibo (largest lake in South America)
    • Angel Falls (world’s highest waterfall)

Major Rivers

  • Rio Negro (shared with Colombia and Brazil): 2,250 km (tributary of the Amazon River)
  • Orinoco (shared with Colombia): 2,101 km (third-longest in South America)

Islands and Territories

  • Margarita Island
  • La Blanquilla
  • La Tortuga
  • Los Roques
  • Los Monjes


  • World’s largest oil reserves
  • Coal
  • Iron ore
  • Bauxite
  • Gold


  • Spanish (official) 98.2%
  • Indigenous languages 1.3%
  • Portuguese 0.1%
  • Other 0.4% (2023 est.)


  • Venezuelan bolívar

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/video/climate-change/how-did-venezuela-s-humboldt-glacier-shrink-to-an-ice-field–96174



7.Muria Tribe and Deda Seed Preservation Method

  • Muria Tribe
    • Location: Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
    • Language: Koya (Dravidian)
    • Population (A.P.): 6,600 (referred to as “Gutti Koyas”)
    • Progressive social structure (e.g., Ghotul youth dormitories)
    • Internally Displaced People (IDPs) – Status disputed in migrated states
  • Deda Seed Preservation Method (passed down through generations)
    • Materials:
      • Siali leaves (Bauhinia vahlii) (“addakulu”)
      • Wood ash
      • Lemon leaves
    • Process:
      • Seeds wrapped in layers:
        • Wood ash (1st layer)
        • Lemon leaves (casing – 2nd layer)
        • Seeds (innermost layer)
      • Woven with Siali leaves to create deda packages resembling boulders
      • Each deda holds at least 5kg of seeds
    • Benefits:
      • Protects seeds from pests and worms
      • Enables seed storage for up to 5 years for cultivation
      • Preserves seeds of pulses (green gram, red gram, black gram, beans)

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/muria-tribes-own-eco-friendly-foolproof-seed-preservation-method/article68178897.ece#

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