Prelims Exam


1.Rogue Wave 

  • Also known as ‘extreme storm waves’.
  • More than twice the size of surrounding waves.
  • Unpredictable and come unexpectedly from different directions.
  • Formed by strong wind forces and unpredictable waveform patterns.
  • Steep-sided with deep troughs.


2.Submersible Platform for Acoustic Characterisation and Evaluation

  • Developed by Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (DRDO).
  • Premier testing hub for sonar systems on ships, submarines and helicopters.
  • Two parts:
    • Floating platform on water surface.
    • Submersible platform lowered to 100m depth.
  • Applications:
    • Evaluate complete sonar systems.
    • Deploy scientific packages (sensors, transducers).
    • Survey, sampling, data collection (air, surface, mid-water, seabed).

Science and Tech.

3.NASA’s Perseverance Rover 

  • Nicknamed “Percy”.
  • Created first sample depot on Mars in 2023.
  • Designed to explore Martian surface for signs of past/present life.
  • Perform scientific experiments to search for life on Mars (mission designed for at least 2 years).
  • Sample return program from Mars deemed too expensive (completion by 2040).


4.Green Credit Programme 

  • Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).
  • Part of ‘Lifestyle for Environment’ (LiFE) movement.
  • Market-based mechanism to incentivize voluntary environmental actions by individuals, communities, and private sector.
  • Focuses on water conservation and afforestation in initial phase.
  • Implementation:
    • Inter-ministerial Steering Committee for governance.
    • Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) for program administration.
    • User-friendly digital platform for registration, verification, and Green Credit issuance.
    • Green Credit Registry and trading platform for registration, buying, and selling Green Credits.
  • Impact:
    • Incentivize environmental actions through tradable Green Credits.
    • Measurable carbon emission reduction could allow Green Credits to become carbon credits.
  • Changes:
    • Ecosystem restoration prioritized over mere tree planting.
    • Preference for indigenous species and retaining naturally growing seedlings.
    • States to specify minimum trees per hectare for reforested landscapes.
    • State forest departments to carry out actual afforestation.

5.Fish Species Spotted Using Tools 

  • Three new fish species observed using tools in Laccadive Sea:
    • Jansen’s wrasse (Thalassoma jansenii)
    • Checkerboard wrasse (Halichoeres hortulanus)
    • Moon wrasse (Thalassoma lunare) (first documented instance of using tools in wild)
  • All three species used live/dead coral structures as anvils to break sea urchin shells for food.
  • Tool use in aquatic animals less common than in land animals due to observation difficulty and perception of lower intelligence in fish.
  • Laccadive Sea: body of water bordering India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka.


6.Queer Community in India

Queer Community:

  • Diverse group encompassing LGBTQIA+ identities.
  • Faces discrimination in various aspects of life.

Challenges Faced:

  • Discrimination: Employment, education, families.
  • Identity Crisis: Difficulty obtaining self-identified gender recognition despite legal protections.
  • Social Stigma: Issues with inheritance, adoption, forced professions (sex work).
  • Health Disparities: Mental health, substance abuse, healthcare access.
  • Lack of Public Amenities: Difficulty using public spaces, toilets, navigating institutions (prisons, hospitals, schools).

Landmark Judgments:

  • NALSA v. Union of India (2014): Legal recognition of gender identity, third-gender rights.
  • Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India (2018): Decriminalization of consensual same-sex relationships.

Government Initiatives:

  • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act (2019): Combats discrimination, recognizes self-identified gender.
  • National Council for Transgender Persons: Advises government on transgender welfare policies.
  • National Portal for Transgender Persons: Provides online platform for ID certificates.
  • Garima Greh Scheme: Offers shelter, amenities to transgender individuals.


  • Progress made in LGBTQ+ rights but challenges remain.
  • Continued efforts needed for full equality and acceptance.




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