Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Exam


1.Front running

Front running is an illegal practice in the Indian stock market and other financial sectors where someone exploits their access to non-public information about upcoming trades to make personal profits. Here’s a breakdown of front running in the Indian context:

What is Front Running?

Imagine a broker at a brokerage firm. They receive a large order from a client to buy a specific stock. This upcoming purchase is likely to drive the stock price up due to increased demand.

The Illegal Act:

Instead of immediately executing the client’s order, the unscrupulous broker might:

  • Buy shares for themselves first: They use their knowledge of the upcoming large order to purchase shares of the same stock for their personal account at a lower price.
  • Inform an accomplice: They might tip off a friend or colleague about the impending large buy order, allowing them to buy shares beforehand.

Once the client’s large order hits the market:

  • The stock price increases due to the high demand.
  • The broker (or their accomplice) then sells their shares at this inflated price, making a quick profit.

Why is it Illegal?

  • Insider Trading: Front running is a form of insider trading because the broker uses non-public information (the client’s order) for personal gain.
  • Unfair Advantage: It creates an unfair advantage for the broker over other investors who are unaware of the upcoming large order.
  • Market Manipulation: It can artificially inflate stock prices and distort the market.

Examples in India:

  • SEBI Actions: The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), the market regulator in India, has taken action against several entities and individuals suspected of front running.
  • In February 2023, SEBI barred a former chief dealer of a mutual fund and 20 other individuals from accessing the securities market for suspected front-running activities.

How to Avoid Front Running:

  • Investors should choose reputable brokers with strong ethical codes to minimize the risk of front running.
  • Diversifying investments across different asset classes can help mitigate the impact of manipulative practices.

Remember: Front running undermines the integrity of the financial markets and erodes investor confidence. By being aware of this practice, investors can protect themselves and promote fair market practices.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/business/sebi-board-approves-amendment-to-mf-rules/article68125619.ece#:~:text=Considering%20the%20recent%20front%2Drunning,a%20structured%20institutional%20mechanism%20for



2.Methane Emissions

Study: An intensive modeling study revealed a decline in methane emissions from fossil fuels between 1990 and the 2000s, while microbial activity has recently led to increased methane production.

Sources of Methane:

  • Biogenic: Methane produced by microbial action.
  • Thermogenic: Methane released during the extraction of fossil fuels (natural gas or oil) from deep within the Earth’s crust.

Biogenic Methane:

  • Archaea: Single-celled microorganisms distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes, called methanogens, are responsible for producing biogenic methane.
  • Methanogens thrive in oxygen-deficient environments such as the digestive tracts of animals, wetlands, rice paddies, landfills, and lake and ocean sediments.


  • Methanogens play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by converting organic matter into methane.
  • While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, its production by methanogens is an essential part of natural ecosystems. However, human activities like agriculture, dairy farming, and fossil fuel production have further amplified methane emissions.

Methane Gas:

  • Methane (CH4) is a colorless, odorless, and highly flammable gas.
  • Methane is a powerful but short-lived greenhouse gas with a lifetime of about a decade in the atmosphere. Its Global Warming Potential is about 80 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the first 20 years after it’s released.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/study-says-microbes-not-fossil-fuels-produced-most-new-methane/article68124627.ece


3.Supreme Court on Hindu Marriage Act 

Recent Judgement: Valid Hindu Marriage Requires Ceremony

The Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955:

  • Governs marriage laws for Hindus (including Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs).
  • Defines conditions for a valid marriage, including ceremonies and registration.
  • Also lays down rules for divorce.

Key Points:

  • A Hindu marriage requires both proper ceremony and registration.
  • Age: Minimum age for marriage – 21 for groom, 18 for bride.
  • Ceremonies:
    • Respectful of customs (Reeti-Riwaz)
    • Saptapadi (taking steps before holy fire) considered necessary.
    • Variations allowed based on accepted customs.
  • Monogamy:
    • Bigamy (multiple marriages) is illegal.
    • Remarriage with a living spouse is void and punishable.
  • Mental Fitness: Marriage is void if either partner is mentally unfit.
  • Registration:
    • Required but not mandatory for a valid marriage.
    • Governed by state-specific laws.
  • Divorce:
    • Allowed through mutual consent.
    • One-year waiting period after marriage, except in exceptional cases.
    • Various grounds for divorce for either spouse.
    • Special grounds for wife to seek divorce.
  • Restitution of Conjugal Rights: Unique provision allowing a spouse to seek court order to restore marital relations if deserted by the other.
  • Legal Procedures:
    • Matters handled by family courts.
    • Jurisdiction based on marriage location, residence, or last cohabitation.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/hindu-marriage-not-valid-unless-performed-with-requisite-ceremonies-sc/article68130754.ece#:~:text=A%20Hindu%20marriage%20is%20not,under%20the%20Hindu%20Marriage%20Act.


4.DRDO Tests Supersonic Missile-Assisted Torpedo Release System

Developed by: Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

Test Launch:

  • Location: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha coast
  • Launcher: Ground mobile launcher

What is SMART?

  • A next-generation missile-based system for launching lightweight torpedoes.
  • Extends the targeting range of lightweight torpedoes to hundreds of kilometers (beyond conventional range).
  • Designed for immediate response when other anti-submarine assets are unavailable.

System Features:

  • Canister-based missile system.
  • Two-stage solid propulsion for supersonic speed.
  • Precision inertial navigation for accurate targeting.
  • Payload: Advanced lightweight torpedo missile with parachute release mechanism.
  • Successful test validated functionalities like symmetric separation, ejection, and velocity control.

Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/drdo-successfully-tests-missile-assisted-torpedo-release-system-9302427/#:~:text=The%20Defence%20Research%20and%20Development,and%20developed%20by%20the%20DRDO.



5.Booker Prize


  • Prestigious literary award for a single work of fiction in English.
  • Published in the UK and/or Ireland.
  • Founded in 1969.
  • Initially only for Commonwealth writers, later opened globally.

Past Indian Winners:

  • Arundhati Roy (God of Small Things)
  • Kiran Desai (Inheritance of Loss)
  • Aravind Adiga (White Tiger)

International Booker Prize


  • Awarded for translated fiction in English.
  • Published in the UK and/or Ireland.
  • Instituted in 2004.

2022 Winner:

  • Geetanjali Shree (Tomb of Sand – Hindi novel)

Source :https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-culture/booker-slavery-link-9301160/


6.Red Colobus Monkeys

In News: Facing threat from poachers in Africa.


  • Sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal to Zanzibar Archipelago)
  • Diverse forests (rainforest, riparian, mangrove swamps)

Threatened Status:

  • All red colobus subspecies are threatened with extinction (IUCN Red List).
  • 14 of 18 taxa are Critically Endangered or Endangered.


  • Key indicator species for biodiversity in African rainforests.
  • Conservation crucial for protecting these forests.


  • Hunting (commercial and subsistence)
  • Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation

Source :https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/world/red-colobus-conserving-these-old-world-primates-could-help-save-africa-s-tropical-forests-says-study-95900


7.Blood Minerals

Context: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) recently accused Apple of using minerals mined through violence and human rights abuses (blood minerals).

About Blood Minerals:

  • Also known as conflict minerals.
  • Refers to tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively 3TG).
  • Essential components in electronics, cars, and aircraft.

The Issue in DRC:

  • DRC is rich in minerals (including 3TG) but also suffers from conflict.
  • Eastern DRC, with vast 3TG deposits, has faced violence for decades.
  • Minerals are mined under brutal conditions with human rights violations.
  • Women and children are most affected, suffering displacement, violence, and forced labor.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

  • Largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa with exceptional natural resources.
  • Among the five poorest nations globally (74.6% lived on less than $2.15/day in 2023).
  • One-sixth of Sub-Saharan Africa’s extremely poor live in DRC.
  • A history of conflict, instability, and authoritarian rule fuels a humanitarian crisis.

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/apple-faces-allegations-of-using-blood-minerals-from-war-torn-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-95885


Govt Schemes

8.Project ISHAN: Unifying Indian Airspace

Goal: Streamline and improve air traffic management in India.

Current Situation:

  • Indian airspace is divided into four Flight Information Regions (FIRs): Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai (plus a sub-FIR in Guwahati).
  • Each FIR is managed separately.

Project ISHAN Plan:

  • Unify the four FIRs into one continuous airspace centered around Nagpur.
  • Implement harmonized Air Traffic Management (ATM) from Nagpur.

Expected Benefits:

  • Streamlined operations
  • Increased capacity
  • Reduced congestion
  • Benefits for airlines and passengers

Key Player:

  • Airports Authority of India (AAI)
    • Public entity under the Ministry of Civil Aviation
    • Established in 1995
    • Responsible for civil aviation infrastructure (ground and airspace)
    • Provides Air Traffic Management Services (ATMS) across India

Source : https://theprint.in/india/governance/mission-ishan-indias-push-for-one-nation-one-airspace-will-benefit-airlines-passengers-alike/2050272/

Science & Tech

9.Utilizing Nanomaterials for Uranium Removal from Wastewater

Researchers are developing a new method using nanomaterials to remove uranium from wastewater contaminated by radioactive soil.

What is Adsorption?

Adsorption is the process where atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid cling to the surface of another material. It’s a surface phenomenon that creates a film of the adsorbed material (adsorbate) on the surface of the adsorbent (usually a solid).

  • Adsorbent: The solid material that attracts and holds the adsorbate.
  • Adsorbate: The molecules or material that gets attracted and held on the adsorbent’s surface.

How Does Adsorption Work?

Adsorption is driven by surface energy. Exposed surface atoms of the adsorbent attract adsorbate molecules. This attraction can be caused by:

  • Electrostatic attraction
  • Chemisorption (chemical bond formation)
  • Physisorption (weaker physical attraction)

Properties of Effective Adsorbents:

  • High Surface Area: Adsorbents have small pores to maximize surface area for adsorption. Pore size typically ranges from 0.25 to 5 millimeters.
  • Stability: Industrial adsorbents should be resistant to heat and wear and tear.
  • Surface Properties: The surface can be tailored to be water-repellent (hydrophobic) or water-attracting (hydrophilic) depending on the application.
  • Shape: Adsorbents can come in various shapes like rods, pellets, or molded forms.

Examples of Adsorbents:

  • Silica gel
  • Alumina
  • Activated carbon (charcoal)
  • Zeolites
  • Biomaterials for protein adsorption
  • Adsorbent chillers (used in refrigeration)

Key Difference from Absorption:

Adsorption is distinct from absorption, where a substance dissolves into a liquid or solid to form a solution.

Importance of Adsorption:

Adsorption plays a crucial role in various natural processes (physical, biological, and chemical) and has numerous industrial applications. Solid adsorbents like activated carbon and synthetic resins are widely used for water purification and wastewater treatment.

Source : https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/13/2/363

Source :https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935122018965


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