Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes


1.Juvenile Justice Board (JJB)

Established: After the enactment of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (earlier Juvenile Court)

Legal Basis: Section 4 (1) of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015


  • One Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate (First Class) with minimum 3 years experience
  • Two Social Workers (one mandatory woman)

Authority: State Government

  • Each district requires one or more JJBs
  • State Governments/UT Administrations are responsible for setting up JJBs

Definition of Child (as per Act):

  • A person under 18 years of age (Section 2(12))

Two Categories of Children under the Act:

  • Child in Conflict with Law: Committed an offence
  • Child in Need of Care and Protection: Victim of crime or unfortunate circumstances

Functions of JJB:

  • Address cases involving juveniles in conflict with the law.
  • Ensure the child’s rights are protected throughout (apprehension, inquiry, aftercare, rehabilitation).
  • Facilitate legal aid through legal services institutions.
  • Conduct monthly inspections of residential facilities for children in conflict with law (Observation Homes & Special Homes). Recommend improvements to District Child Protection Unit and state government.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pune-porsche-car-accident-pune-juvenile-court-cancels-bail-of-teenager-sends-him-to-observation-home/article68204807.ece




2.Reserve Bank of India’s Economic Capital Framework (ECF)


  • RBI transferred a surplus of Rs 2.11 lakh crore to the government (FY 2023-24) based on the ECF.

About ECF:

  • Adopted in 2019 following recommendations by the Bimal Jalan committee.
  • Determines the appropriate level of:
    • Risk provisions
    • Profit distribution to the government (as per RBI Act, 1934 Section 47)

Key Points:

  • ECF ensures the RBI maintains:
    • Adequate reserves for potential financial risks
    • Transfers remaining profits to the government

Contingent Risk Buffer (CRB):

  • Increased to 6.5% for FY 2023-24 (from 6% previously).
  • Represents a buffer within the ECF to manage potential financial risks.
  • Committee recommendation: Maintain CRB between 6.5% – 5.5% of RBI’s balance sheet.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/business/rbi-board-approves-transfer-of-210874-crore-surplus-to-centre-for-fy24/article68203941.ece



3.Competition Commission of India (CCI)

Established: 2009 (by the Government of India under the Competition Act, 2002)

Ministry: Ministry of Corporate Affairs

Body Type: Statutory, Quasi-judicial

Members: Chairperson and up to 6 Members appointed by the Central Government


  • Eliminate anti-competitive practices
  • Promote and sustain fair competition
  • Protect consumer interests
  • Ensure freedom of trade in Indian markets

Powers and Responsibilities

  • Enforce and implement the Competition Act (2002)
  • Investigate anti-competitive agreements
  • Investigate abuse of dominant market position
  • Regulate mergers, acquisitions, and amalgamations to prevent adverse effects on competition

Recent Context (15th Annual Day)

  • The Attorney General for India emphasized the need to balance free market principles with social welfare goals.

Source : https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=2021147


Science and Technology

4.Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) Aircraft

What is it?

  • An electric aircraft that can hover, take off, and land vertically using electric motors.
  • A new technology in urban air mobility.


  • Low-altitude, short-range flights within cities.
  • Carries a small number of passengers (typically 4-8).


  • Distributed electric propulsion: Multiple electric motors integrated into the aircraft for efficiency and safety.
  • Driven by advancements in electric motors, batteries, and control systems.


  • Air taxi services
  • Delivery drones
  • Emergency medical transport
  • Cargo transport
  • Recreational flying


  • Improved urban mobility and connectivity within and between cities.
  • Potential to reduce traffic congestion.
  • On-demand transportation options.

Current Status in India:

  • ePlane Company (IIT Madras) developing eVTOL taxis for launch in Bengaluru (2024).
  • Indian government regulations for eVTOL use are still under development.

Source : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/science-technology/is-evtol-a-boon-or-bane-it-depends-on-how-we-put-it-to-use-96280




5.La Niña and Al Nino

La Niña: The “Cold Sister”


  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) predicts above-average monsoon rains due to La Niña conditions expected in August-September.

El Niño & La Niña:

  • Ocean-atmosphere interactions impacting Pacific Ocean temperatures.
  • El Niño (more frequent) – Warmer waters in eastern Pacific.
  • La Niña (less frequent) – Colder waters in eastern Pacific.

Normal Conditions:

  • Trade winds blow west, pushing warm surface water from South America to Asia (upwelling of cold water near South America).
  • Warm surface water near Indonesia creates low pressure, leading to cloud formation and rainfall (monsoon development).

La Niña (The Cold Sister):

  • Stronger trade winds push warm water towards Indonesia, cooling the eastern Pacific.


  • Increased Rainfall: Southeast Asia, northern Australia, parts of South America (India – except east/northeast).
  • Drier Conditions: Southwestern US, parts of Africa (droughts).
  • Stronger Atlantic Hurricanes: Reduced wind shear allows for more hurricane formation (e.g., record 30 in 2021).
  • Cooler Temperatures: Pacific Northwest US, parts of South America.

El Niño: The “Little Boy”


  • Spanish term meaning “Little Boy.”
  • Noticed by South American fishermen in the 1600s due to unusually warm Pacific waters.

El Niño Events:

  • Warming of sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.
  • Weakening trade winds push warm water eastward.

Impact on India:

  • Reduced Monsoon Rainfall: Droughts in many parts of the country, impacting agriculture, water resources, and the economy.
  • Increased Temperatures: Rise in temperatures across India.
  • Forest Fires: Drier conditions heighten risk of fires, causing environmental damage, biodiversity loss, and air pollution.
  • Water Scarcity: Decreased rainfall leads to water scarcity for drinking, irrigation, and hydropower generation.
  • Fisheries Impact: Changes in sea temperatures and currents disrupt fish migration patterns and populations.

El Niño and Climate Change:

  • Scientists believe climate change may:
    • Alter average Pacific Ocean conditions.
    • Increase the frequency of El Niño events.
  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO) suggests climate change may affect:
    • Intensity of extreme weather events.
    • Frequency of El Niño and La Niña related events.

 Source : https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-climate/la-nina-el-nino-weather-impact-9343409/



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