Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes


Estonia is a country located in Northern Europe, bordering Latvia and Russia. It is a former Soviet Union member that is renowned for its advancements in technology and cybersecurity.

Key Facts:

  • Baltic Country (along with Latvia and Lithuania)
  • Major Rivers: Emajõgi and Pärnu
  • Highest Point: Suur Munamagi

India-Estonia Relations

  • India first recognized Estonia in 1921 (League of Nations)
  • Re-recognition after Soviet collapse (1991)
  • Established diplomatic relations in 1991 (Helsinki)

Cybersecurity Collaboration

  • Estonia is looking to partner with India to strengthen cybersecurity infrastructure.
  • Estonia has a strong track record in cybersecurity, having faced a large-scale DDoS attack in 2007.



2.Potential Acquisition of Mirage 2000 Fighter Jets


  • India is considering buying 12 used Mirage 2000s from Qatar to address the IAF’s depleting fighter jet fleet due to MiG retirements.

About Mirage 2000:

  • Origin: Designed by Dassault Aviation (France)
  • Type: 4th-generation, multirole fighter aircraft
  • IAF Acquisition: Around 51 Mirage 2000s in multiple batches (3 squadrons stationed at Gwalior Air Force Station)

Key Features:

  • Versatility: Air-to-air combat, ground attack, reconnaissance, and nuclear strike missions.
  • Combat Proven:
    • Played a decisive role in the Kargil War with high-altitude precision strikes using laser-guided bombs.
    • Demonstrated effectiveness in the 2019 Balakot airstrikes.
  • Modernization: Ongoing upgrade program to extend operational life and capabilities until 2035.



3.Plutonium Isotope Fission

Plutonium (Pu):

  • Silvery-gray radioactive metal.
  • 5 common isotopes: Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242.
  • All are fissile (nucleus splits with neutron impact).


  • Pu-239: Primary fuel in nuclear weapons (highest fissile material content).
    • Produced from U-238 in nuclear reactors.
  • Pu-240:
    • Considered a contaminant in weapons-grade plutonium due to spontaneous fission (alpha emission).
    • Used in long-lived power sources (e.g., pacemakers, space missions).

Recent Development:

  • New measurement of neutron energy released during Pu-240 fission.

India’s Nuclear Program:

  • Stage 1: Pressurized heavy-water reactors using uranium isotopes as fuel.
    • Produce Pu-239 along with energy.
  • Stage 2 (March 2024): Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) in Kalpakkam.
    • Focuses on plutonium fission for efficient fuel utilization.
    • Pu-239 nucleus captures a neutron:
      • 27-38% chance of becoming Pu-240 (uncertain fission energy).
      • Can further transform into Pu-241.

Note: Pu-240 presence is common in reactors and nuclear weapon fallout.



4. microRNA Biomarkers

CSIR-CCMB Discovery:

  • Scientists at CSIR-CCMB identified a potentially cost-effective and non-invasive method for detecting breast cancer.
  • Method utilizes microRNAs (miRNAs) – small molecules regulating cellular processes.

miRNAs as Biomarkers:

  • Analyzed miRNA signatures in cancer samples to identify those associated with invasive breast cancer.
  • 107 miRNAs identified as potential biomarkers for classifying different breast cancer types, grades, and stages.

Liquid Biopsy Potential:

  • Cancer cells release circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) detectable in blood plasma.
  • Identified miRNA biomarkers could be used in a liquid biopsy system for cancer detection from a single blood drop.


  • Paves the way for miRNA-based breast cancer diagnosis.
  • Offers a refined, cost-effective, and non-invasive approach for early detection.
  • Biomarker discovery is crucial for early detection, classification, and monitoring of cancer.



5.ISRO’s Pushpak

ISRO Mission:

  • Successful landing of Pushpak Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) for the third time (RLV LEX-03 mission).

Testing Objectives:

  • Challenging conditions:
    • Deviations from intended orbit during descent.
    • Severe wind conditions.

Vehicle Design:

  • Reuses winged body and flight systems from previous experiment.
  • Utilizes multiple sensors:
    • Inertial sensor
    • Radar altimeter
    • Pseudolite system
    • NAVIC satellite system


  • Reduce launch costs and maintain space competitiveness.
  • Reusable design allows for satellite deployment and runway landing like an airplane.
  • Validated critical technology: advanced algorithm for correcting trajectory errors.


6.India-Russia Military Cooperation Gets a Boost

Logistics Agreement Approved by Russia:

  • A significant step towards increased military engagement between India and Russia.

Agreement Details:

  • Facilitates mutual logistical support for:
    • Peacekeeping missions
    • Humanitarian assistance
    • Joint military exercises
  • Provides critical services like:
    • Refueling
    • Maintenance
    • Supplies
  • Enhances interoperability between the two militaries.

Validity and Renewal:

  • 5 years with automatic renewal unless terminated by either party.

Building on Existing Ties:

  • This pact strengthens the longstanding India-Russia military relationship.
  • Follows a 2021 agreement on military-technical cooperation until 2030.

India’s Strategic Outlook:

  • Similar logistics agreements exist with the US, France, South Korea, Singapore, Australia, and Japan.
  • These pacts enhance India’s:
    • Strategic reach
    • Operational readiness
    • Ability to sustain complex military deployments.


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