Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic Taming Inflation: A To-Do List

GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes

Question : Critically Analysis the government’s response to high pulse inflation, including the liberalization of pulse imports and the implications for farmers.


  • Controlling food inflation (around 8%) while managing overall inflation within RBI’s target range (4+/-2%).

Recent Development:

  • India’s agri-imports declined by 8% in 2023-24 ($32.8 billion vs $35.7 billion in 2022-23).
  • Average annual growth rate (AAGR) of agri-imports also slowed down under the current government (9% vs 14% during UPA rule).

Reasons for Decline in Agri-Imports:

  • Main factor: Drop in international edible oil prices (28.5% decline in import value).
    • Quantity of edible oil imports remained stable (15-16 million MT in both years).
    • India imports 55-60% of its edible oil needs.
    • Palm oil (over 50% share) is the major import, followed by soybean and sunflower.
    • FAO’s vegetable oil sub-index reflects lower global prices (168.5 in 2022-23 vs 123.4 in 2023-24).

Other Agri-Imports:

  • Pulses, fresh fruits & vegetables, sugar, spices, cashew, etc.


Pulse Price Fluctuations in India

Historical Context (2016-2023):

  • Pulse imports peaked at $4.2 billion (6.6 MT) in 2016-17.
  • Domestic production also surged to 6 MT in 2016-17,leading to a glut.
  • Prices fell below minimum support prices (MSP).
  • Government imposed import tariffs (30-60%) and quantity restrictions.

Current Status:

  • Pulse production stagnant at 25-27 MMT.
  • Import restrictions and slow production growth lead to high pulse inflation.
  • April 2024: Pulses inflation – 17%, Tur inflation – 31%.

Government Response:

  • Liberalized pulse imports with zero duty until December 2024.
  • Aims to control consumer prices but may hurt farmers.

Pulse Policy:

  • Gradual reduction in import duty, not a sudden drop to zero.
  • Landed price of imported pulses should not fall below MSP.
  • NAFED to buy pulses at MSP if domestic prices fall, to create buffer stocks and support farmers.

Edible Oil/Oilseed Policy:

  • Landed price of imported oil shouldn’t be below MSP of domestically produced oilseeds (converted to oil equivalent).
  • Self-sufficiency through traditional oilseeds (mustard, groundnut, soybean) is impractical (needs 35-40 million hectares extra land).
  • Promote palm oil cultivation on 2 million hectares of suitable land (high yield – 4 tonnes/ha).

Key Takeaway:

  • Integrate trade policy (import) with domestic MSP policy.
  • This is crucial for pulses and oilseeds (low water & fertilizer requirements).
  • Protects farmers’ income and promotes sustainable agriculture.


Indian Express Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : The ICC’s challenge

GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes


Question : Examine the territorial jurisdiction of the ICC, particularly in cases involving non-member states like Israel and Russia. How does the ICC justify its jurisdiction over crimes committed by individuals from these countries?

Why in News?

  • International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor Karim Khan requested arrest warrants against:
  • Israeli leaders: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Defence Minister Yoav Gallant
  • Hamas leaders: Yahya Sinwar, Mohammed Diab Ibrahim Al-Masri (Deif), Ismail Haniyeh
  • Charges: War crimes and crimes against humanity over the October 7 attack on Israel and subsequent Gaza war


  • ICC criticized for targeting third-world leaders, not Western powers/allies
  • First time seeking arrest warrants against Israeli leaders
  • Seen as an attempt at balanced approach by charging both Hamas and Israeli leaders

ICC overrides Head of State immunity:

  • International law grants immunity to Heads of State from foreign/international courts
  • ICC statute denies immunity, as ruled in 2019 Jordan Referral re Al-Bashir Appeal judgment
  • Enabled ICC to issue 2023 arrest warrant against Russian President Vladimir Putin for Ukraine war role

Territorial jurisdiction of the ICC:

  • Israel and Russia are not members of the ICC
  • Question raised if ICC can issue arrest warrants for Israeli leaders
  • Basis of ICC’s jurisdiction: Palestine is a state party to the court
  • ICC can exercise territorial jurisdiction
  • If crime committed on territory of a state party to ICC, court can exercise jurisdiction
  • Even if crime committed by non-member state’s people
  • Crimes by Israeli soldiers in Gaza fall under ICC’s jurisdiction
  • Hamas’ conduct in Israel also falls under ICC’s jurisdiction, despite Israel’s non-membership

ICC’s Dismal Record Against High-Level State Officials:

  • Poor track record, especially against heads of states
  • Omar al-Bashir case (Sudan) – Arrest warrant in 2009, ousted in 2019 but not surrendered
  • William Ruto, Uhuru Kenyatta (Kenya) – Charges dropped
  • Simone Gbagbo (Ivory Coast) – Charges dropped
  • Putin’s arrest warrant limits travels, but surrender unlikely

Significance of Arrest Warrants Against Israeli PM:

  • Momentous event for 3 reasons:
    1. Legal and diplomatic blow to Israel if issued
    2. Curtails Netanyahu’s travel to ICC member states
    3. Shows international law can hold the powerful accountable
  • Litmus test for ICC’s credibility and legitimacy


  • ICC warrants against Israel, Hamas leaders show the powerful can be held accountable
  • No immunity for heads of state at ICC
  • Sends strong signal about international law

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