Stage-2 of Vikram-1 Space Launch Vehicle

  • Developed by Skyroot Aerospace – leading Indian space-tech company.
  • Significance:
    • First private orbital rocket launch for India (Vikram-1).
    • Successful test firing of the second stage (Kalam-250) – propels satellites from Earth’s atmosphere to space.
    • High-strength carbon composite rocket motor with solid fuel and EPDM Thermal Protection System (TPS).


POSCO Offence to be Tried as per JJ Act

  • Kerala High Court ruling: Child charged under POCSO Act (2012) to be prosecuted under Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (JJ Act).
  • POCSO Act:
    • Protects children from sexual abuse and exploitation.
    • Defines child as anyone below 18 years.
    • Stringent punishment for offenders.
  • JJ Act (2015):
    • Aims to achieve UN Convention on the Rights of Children.
    • Specifies procedures for children in conflict with law.
    • Addresses issues like adoption delays and increased crime by 16-18 year olds.


Luna Structure

  • 8-kilometer wide crater linked to Harappan Civilization and potentially caused by a massive meteorite impact.
  • Location: Low-lying Banni Plains of Gujarat’s Kutch Basin (submerged for part of the year).
  • Possible impact effects: Fireball, shockwaves, wildfires.
  • Evidence of extraterrestrial origin: Presence of elements like Rhodium, Palladium, Osmium, Iridium, and Platinum in surrounding rocks.
  • Difficulty in studying the impact site due to dense ground cover.

Meteoroids vs Meteors vs Meteorites

  • Meteoroids: Rocks or iron orbiting the sun (most from asteroid collisions).
  • Meteors: Burning meteoroids entering Earth’s atmosphere (fireballs or “shooting stars”).
  • Meteorites: Meteoroids that survive atmosphere and hit the ground.


Domestic Systemically Important Insurers (D-SIIs)

  • Designated by Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI).
  • Considered “too big or too important to fail” (TBTF).
  • 2023-24 D-SIIs (continuation from 2021-22):
    • Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC)
    • General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC)
    • New India Assurance Co
  • Importance: Continued functioning is critical for uninterrupted insurance services.

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)

  • Statutory body formed under IRDAI Act (1999).
  • Regulates the insurance industry in India.
  • Objectives:
    • Protect policyholder interests.
    • Ensure fair treatment of policyholders.
    • Regulate the industry fairly.
    • Ensure financial soundness of the industry.
    • Frame regulations for smooth industry operation.


Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus)

  • Seen recently in the United States’ New England region (last seen in Atlantic in 18th century).
  • Primarily bottom feeders requiring shallow continental shelf waters.
  • Habitat and Distribution:
    • Now found in North Pacific and adjacent seas.
    • Largest populations along west coasts of Canada, US, and Mexico.
    • Smaller numbers seen near eastern Russia and Japan.
  • IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern.


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