Daily Current Affairs

To The Point Notes





1.WIPO Treaty on Genetic Resources & Traditional Knowledge

Context: After 25 years, WIPO concluded a treaty on Genetic Resources (GRs) and Traditional Knowledge (TK).

Genetic Resources (GRs):

  • Found in plants, crops, animals (e.g., medicinal plants).
  • Cannot be directly patented, but inventions based on them can (often through patents).

Traditional Knowledge (TK):

  • Knowledge of indigenous and local communities about using and conserving GRs, often passed down for generations.
  • May be used in research leading to patented inventions.

About the Treaty:

  • Requires patent applicants to disclose:
    • Country of origin of GRs.
    • Source of GRs and associated TK.
  • This disclosure helps protect:
    • Indian GRs and TK from misappropriation abroad (where disclosure is not mandatory).


  • First WIPO treaty on IP, GRs, and TK.
  • First WIPO treaty with specific provisions for indigenous peoples and local communities.

Way Ahead:

  • A win for developing countries (including India) and indigenous communities.
  • Helps bridge conflicting interests within the intellectual property (IP) system.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO):

  • UN agency for intellectual property.
  • 193 member states (developed and developing countries).
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.

 Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/wipo-concludes-new-treaty-to-protect-genetic-resources-traditional-knowledge-india-plays-key-role/article68214956.ece




2.ZiG: Zimbabwe’s Gold-Backed Currency

Context: Zimbabwe launched the ZiG, a gold-backed currency, to tackle hyperinflation and currency instability.


  • Sixth national currency in 15 years.
  • Follows 2009 collapse of Zimbabwe dollar due to hyperinflation (5 billion %).


  • ZiG’s value tied to physical gold reserves held by the government.
  • Aims for stability and prevents devaluation.
  • Denominations: 1ZiG, 2ZiG, 5ZiG, etc.


  • Public skepticism due to past currency failures.
  • Black market fluctuations: Up to 17 ZiG per US dollar.

Goal: Restore public trust in Zimbabwe’s monetary system.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/zimbabwes-gold-backed-currency-zig-all-you-need-to-know/article68220482.ece




3.Eucalyptus Plantations

Context: Kerala allows planting Eucalyptus for financial gain, raising environmental concerns.

About Eucalyptus:

  • Genus of fast-growing trees native to Australia (>800 species).
  • Rotates every 9 years (compared to Acacia at 18 years).


  • Wood Source: 70% of India’s pulp and paper industry relies on Eucalyptus.
  • Carbon Sequestration: Eucalyptus plantations absorb CO2 (369.2 mg/ha in 6 years).
  • Soil Improvement: Can increase soil carbon storage in agri-silviculture systems.

Environmental Concerns:

  • Invasive Species: Disrupts natural ecosystems in Kerala.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: Eucalyptus plantations may displace wildlife, forcing them into human areas.




4.RBI Initiatives for Public Access

New Measures:

  • RBI launched three initiatives to improve public access:
    • PRAVAAH Portal
    • Retail Direct Mobile App
    • Fintech Repository


  • A secure online platform for individuals and businesses.
  • Simplifies application process for RBI approvals (licenses, authorizations).
  • One-stop shop for regulatory interactions, improving efficiency.

Retail Direct Mobile App:

  • Enables retail investors to access the Retail Direct platform.
  • Allows transactions in government securities (G-Secs).
  • Features:
    • Open Retail Direct Gilt accounts with RBI.
    • Participate in G-Secs auctions.
    • Buy and sell G-Secs in the secondary market.
  • Available on Android and iOS app stores.

Fintech Repository:

  • Comprehensive database of India’s fintech sector.
  • Improves regulatory understanding of the sector.
  • Information on:
    • Indian fintech companies
    • Products & services offered
    • Applicable regulations

EmTech Repository (related initiative):

  • Tracks adoption of emerging technologies (AI, ML, etc.) by RBI-regulated entities (banks, NBFCs).

Overall Goal:

  • Enhance public access to the RBI.
  • Streamline regulatory approvals and transactions.

Source : https://www.thehindu.com/business/rbi-unveils-pravaah-portal-retail-direct-mobile-app-and-fintech-repository/article68225543.ece




Person in News

5.Major Radhika Sen Wins UN Military Gender Advocate Award


  • Recognizes efforts in promoting gender equality in peacekeeping missions.
  • Awarded on International Day of UN Peacekeepers (May 30th).
  • Second Indian recipient after Major Suman Gawani (2019).

Major Radhika Sen’s Contribution:

  • Served with MONUSCO in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • Established Community Alert Networks:
    • Platform for community leaders, youth, and women to voice security concerns.
    • Earned trust of conflict-affected communities.
  • Led mixed-gender patrols, fostering a safe space for collaboration.
  • Role model for both men and women in peacekeeping.

International Day of UN Peacekeepers (2024 Theme: “Fit for the Future, Building Better Together”)

  • Honors UN peacekeeping personnel (soldiers, police, civilians).
  • Established in 2002 by the UN General Assembly.

UN Peacekeeping Role:

  • Department of Peace Operations leads peacekeeping efforts.
  • Goal: Help countries in conflict create lasting peace.
  • Authorized by Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Security Council).

Source : https://epaper.thehindu.com/ccidist-ws/th/th_international/issues/84780/OPS/G1JCRSUUN.1.png?cropFromPage=true



6.New Algal Species Discovered in Western Ghats

  • Discovery: A group of psychologists from the Department of Botany at Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta found a new algal species.
  • Species: Oedocladium sahyadricum (named after the Western Ghats – Sahyadri)
  • Location: Natural forests of Kumbhavurutty region, Kollam, Kerala (first Oedocladium species recorded in the state)
  • Appearance: Velvety green, moss-like protonema, turning yellowish-green with maturity.
  • Significance: Provides ideal conditions for growth of terrestrial microalgae due to the rich plant diversity of the Western Ghats.
  • Publication: Discovery published in Taiwania, an international biodiversity journal.
  • Potential Applications: Medicine, agriculture, and production of astaxanthin (natural pigment with health benefits).

 Source : https://epaper.thehindu.com/ccidist-ws/th/th_international/issues/84711/OPS/G5DCRQTAP.1.png?cropFromPage=true



7.Dhole (Cuon alpinus)

Habitat: Forests, grasslands, mountains (South & Southeast Asia)

Appearance: Reddish coat, bushy tail, large ears (fox & wolf mix)

Social: Highly social, live & hunt in packs (5-12, up to 30)

Diet & Hunting: Medium-sized ungulates (deer, boar), cooperative hunting

Communication: Whistles, clicks, growls (hunts & social bonding)

Reproduction: Varies geographically, females birth 4-6 pups (gestation: 60-63 days)

Conservation Status: Endangered (IUCN Red List) – habitat loss,prey depletion, human-wildlife conflict

Source :https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/wildlife-biodiversity/world-dhole-day-2024-sambar-for-lunch-with-some-coffee-96376



8.Mauxi Village: Neolithic Discoveries

Location: Mauxi (Mhaus) village, Sattari taluka, Goa


  • Ancient rock carvings found on the Zarme riverbed.
  • Confirmed by ASI to belong to the Neolithic period (discovered by locals 20 years ago).


  • Animals (zebus, bulls, antelopes)
  • Footprints and cupules (circular cavities)
  • 20 etchings made using the bruising technique


  • Neolithic period (12,000 years ago – 4500 BCE) marked the shift to agriculture and animal domestication.
  • Carvings depict early inhabitants and their lifestyle.
  • A trident carving suggests the site’s use in later Iron Age as well.
  • Presence of the Dhawad community (early settlers and ironsmiths) adds another layer to the history.

Facts & Figures:

  • Stone Age: Divided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic based on tool advancements and societal changes.
  • Neolithic Age: Began around 12,000 years ago and ended between 4500 BCE and 2000 BCE.

Source : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/travel/destinations/rock-carvings-found-in-goas-mauxi-village-20-years-ago-belong-from-neolithic-age-asi-confirms/articleshow/110426930.cms#:~:text=Mauxi%20(Mhaus)%20village%20in%20the,belong%20to%20the%20neolithic%20period

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