India – Mauritius Relations (GS-2 Mains)

Current Development:

  • India and Mauritius jointly inaugurated projects for maritime security and connectivity to Agalega islands.
  • MoU signed in 2015 to upgrade airstrip and Set James Jetty.
  • Agalega islands crucial for boosting connectivity and maritime security in the Indian Ocean region.

Historical Ties:

  • Deep bond rooted in shared history, culture, and democratic values.
  • First Indians arrived in 1729; half a million Indian indentured workers brought during British rule.

Diplomatic Relations:

  • Established in 1948, before Mauritius gained independence.
  • High Commissioner represents India since independence.

Economic Cooperation:

  • Signed Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Partnership Agreement (CECPA) in 2021.
  • Bilateral trade grew by 132% in the last 17 years.
  • Mauritius contributes 26% of total FDI inflows into India.

Defence Cooperation:

  • India preferred defence partner for Mauritius.
  • Indian officers head Mauritian Defence Forces units.
  • Line of Credit of USD 100 mn extended for defence procurement.

Other Collaborations:

  • India first responder in crises.
  • Mauritius joined India’s Jan Aushadhi initiative.
  • RuPay cards and UPI connectivity established.

Challenges and Concerns:

  • DTAA amendments due to potential misuse.
  • Chagos Archipelago sovereignty dispute.
  • Security concerns in Indo-Pacific region.
  • Logistical and bureaucratic challenges in project implementation.


  • India-Mauritius relationship multifaceted and growing stronger.
  • Reflects shared history, cultural affinities, and mutual respect.


Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (PMP) (GS-2 Mains)

Project Details:

  • Bi-national hydropower project on Mahakali River (India-Nepal border).
  • Established under 1996 Mahakali Treaty.
  • Aims:
    • Generate 6,480 MW power (equal split).
    • Irrigate 130,000 ha (Nepal) and 240,000 ha (India).

Areas of Disagreement:

  • Nepal feels India gets more benefits (irrigation, flood control).
  • Nepal views water as “white gold” and wants payment from India.
  • India rejects this to avoid impacting other water treaties (e.g., Indus Waters Treaty).

India-Nepal Relations


  • Shared border (over 1,850 km).
  • 1950 Treaty of Peace and Friendship: foundation of relations.
  • Nepalese citizens enjoy rights similar to Indians (as per treaty).
  • Close defense cooperation (training, joint exercises).
  • Development partnership (border infrastructure, cross-border links).
  • Water resource cooperation (existing mechanisms).
  • Strong energy ties (power exchange agreement, electricity supply).
  • Trade and economic partnership (India is Nepal’s largest trade partner).
  • Cultural ties (“roti beti” relationship).


  • 1950 Treaty: seen as unequal by some in Nepal.
  • Territorial disputes (Kalapani, Susta).
  • Accusations of Indian political interference.
  • Shared security concerns (terrorism, trafficking).
  • Perception of unequal relationship (economic dependence).

Way Forward:

  • Consensus needed for project (political & bureaucratic).
  • Despite challenges, both sides committed to dialogue and solutions.


Kerala LokAyukta Amendment Bill Gets Presidential Nod (GS-2 Mains)

Key Amendments:

  • Reduces Lokayukta’s power: cannot disqualify public servants for corruption/nepotism.
  • New competent authorities:
    • Chief Minister complaints – State Assembly (instead of Governor).
    • MLA complaints – Speaker of Assembly.
  • Authorities can accept or reject Lokayukta recommendations.

What are Lokayuktas?

  • Established under Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013.
  • Investigate corruption charges against public servants, politicians.
  • Inspired by Scandinavian Ombudsman system.
  • First established in Maharashtra (1971).
  • Headed by retired Chief Justice/High Court Judge.

Challenges Faced by Lokayuktas:

  • Limited jurisdiction.
  • Lack of independence from political influence.
  • Inadequate resources.
  • Weak whistleblower protection.
  • Reliant on government’s will to fight corruption.

Measures to Strengthen Lokayuktas:

  • Broader jurisdiction through legislation.
  • Transparent, merit-based appointment process.
  • Fixed tenure, adequate resources, and protection from interference.
  • Public awareness campaigns.
  • Stronger whistleblower protection laws.
  • Holding governments accountable for implementing recommendations.


Rising Global Obesity Rates (Lancet Study) (GS-2 Mains)

What is Obesity?

  • Defined by WHO as excessive fat accumulation harming health.
  • BMI over 25: overweight, over 30: obese (BMI = weight / height²)
  • Most common form of malnutrition globally.

Global Scenario:

  • Over 1 billion people obese worldwide (2022).
  • 159 million children/adolescents and 879 million adults affected.


  • Significant rise in childhood obesity rates.
  • 2022 ranking: 174th globally (girls & boys).
  • NFHS-5 (2019-2021): 6.4% women & 4.0% men (15-49) obese.

Causes of Obesity:

  • Poor diet (high-calorie, low-nutrient foods).
  • Lack of physical activity (sedentary lifestyle).
  • Medications (side effects of certain drugs).
  • Sleep problems (hormonal imbalance, increased appetite).
  • Genetics (predisposition to weight gain).


  • Government policies: restrict unhealthy food/drink sales & marketing to children, promote healthy options in schools.
  • Community initiatives: encourage physical activity in children (outdoor play, chores).
  • Individual actions: parents encouraging healthy habits in children.


India’s First Hydrogen Fuel Cell Ferry (GS-3 Mains)

Harit Nauka Initiative:

  • Launched by Shipping Ministry in 2024.
  • Aims for 50% green fuel use in inland waterways by 2035, 100% by 2045.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells:

  • Combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity.
  • Anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes separate and combine elements.
  • Generate electricity with only water vapor as a byproduct (zero-emission).
  • Advantages: high efficiency, versatility, fast refueling, potentially low environmental impact.
  • Disadvantages: high production cost, limited infrastructure, energy-intensive production (often), storage challenges, safety concerns.


  • Lightest element, most abundant element in universe.
  • Types:
    • Grey hydrogen (fossil fuel-based production).
    • Blue hydrogen (natural gas with carbon capture).
    • Green hydrogen (renewable energy electrolysis).



Juice Jacking: Beware Public Charging Ports

  • Cyberattack:Hackers tamper with public USB ports to steal data.
  • Targets:Android & iOS (older devices more at risk).
  • Risks:Stealing data (emails, SMS, passwords) or infecting with malware.
  • RBI Warning:Avoid public charging ports.

Leopard Population Status in India (2022)

  • 8% Increase:National estimate grew from 12,852 (2018) to 13,874.
  • State-wise Distribution:
    • Highest – Madhya Pradesh (3,907)
    • Followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.
  • Habitat-wise Distribution:
    • Growth in Central India & Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, North-East.
    • Decline in Shivalik & Gangetic plains.

Early Jacaranda Bloom in Mexico

  • Jacaranda trees are native to South America, known for their beautiful purple flowers.
  • They typically bloom in spring or early summer depending on the region.
  • The recent early blooming of Jacaranda trees in Mexico has raised concerns about climate change.
  • Possible reasons for early bloom:
    • Warmer temperatures due to climate change can disrupt flowering cycles.
    • Changes in rainfall patterns can also influence blooming times.

Sources : The Hindu and Indian Express Newspaper

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