Milk Consumption on the Rise in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) Findings:

  • Milk emerges as the top food expenditure item in both rural and urban India (2022-23).
  • Rural households show sharper spending growth compared to urban.
  • Milk consumption:
    • Rural: ₹314 per month (higher than other food categories).
    • Urban: ₹466 per month (tops the list).

India’s Milk Production:

  • Largest producer globally (24% of world’s milk production in 2021-22).
  • Top 5 producing states: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh (contribute 53%).

Challenges with Increased Demand:

  • Inflation: Milk prices have risen significantly in the past five years.
  • Rising input costs: Fodder, feed, and raw materials have become more expensive.
  • Impact on consumers: Higher prices may lead to reduced demand.

Solutions to Reduce Milk Production Cost:

  • White Revolution 2.0: Improve upon Operation Flood’s success.

Strategies for Cost Reduction:

  • Improved breeding and genetics: Invest in high-yielding breeds and cross-breeding programs.
  • Nutrition management: Provide balanced and cost-effective feed for better milk yield.
  • Reduced fodder cost: Models like Amul’s Total Mixed Ration (TMR) plant can provide cost-effective solutions.
  • Improved healthcare and disease management: Minimize losses from preventable diseases.
  • Cooperative farming and collective bargaining: Empower small-scale farmers for better resource access.
  • Government support: Subsidies for essential inputs and policy reforms can benefit farmers.
  • Research and development: Invest in innovative solutions for dairy farming challenges.

Government Initiatives for Dairy Sector Promotion:

  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission: Conserve and develop indigenous cattle breeds (launched in 2014).
  • National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD): Strengthen infrastructure for milk production, processing, and marketing (since 2014).
  • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS): Create self-employment opportunities (implemented by NABARD).
  • National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP): Control Foot & Mouth Disease and Brucellosis (launched in 2019).
  • National Livestock Mission (NLM): Ensure sustainable development of the livestock sector (focuses on productivity, health, and fodder/feed resources).

Way Ahead:

  • Faster vaccination drives to combat diseases like Lumpy skin disease.
  • Robust value chain to overcome supply chain disruptions.
  • Coordinated implementation of strategies can reduce production costs, improve farmer livelihoods, and ensure a thriving dairy industry.


Karnataka Temple Bill

Key Provisions:

  • Aims to collect funds from richer temples for the welfare of priests and upkeep of less wealthy temples.
  • Proposes a Common Pool Fund:
    • 5% from temples earning ₹10 lakh – ₹1 crore.
    • 10% from temples earning above ₹1 crore.
  • Funds used for:
    • Archaka (priest) welfare (insurance, scholarships etc.).
    • Upkeep of C category temples (annual income < ₹5 lakh).

Temple Revenue Collection in Other States:

  • Telangana: 1.5% from religious institutions earning > ₹50,000 annually.
  • Kerala: Temples managed by state-run Devaswom Boards.
  • Uttarakhand: Certain temples recently freed from state control.

Regulation of Temples in India:

  • A long history of regulation through state laws and central commissions.
  • Balancing misuse prevention with temple autonomy remains a challenge.


Tripura: Tripartite Agreement to Address Indigenous Concerns

Tipra Motha’s Demands:

  • Greater Tipraland: A separate state for indigenous people, including those outside the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC).
  • More powers for TTAADC:
    • Direct central funding.
    • Own police force.
    • Share of revenue from gas exploration.
    • Roman script for Kokborok language.


  • Anxiety among indigenous communities due to declining population (from 63.77% in 1881 to 31.8% in 2011).
  • Displacement from ancestral lands.

Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC):

  • Formed in 1985 under the Constitution’s 6th schedule.
  • Legislative and executive powers.
  • Covers nearly two-thirds of Tripura’s area.

Greater Tipraland:

  • Encompasses TTAADC region and 36 additional villages within Tripura.
  • Tipra Motha seeks statehood or Union Territory status under Articles 2 & 3 of the Constitution.
  • Broader vision includes uniting indigenous communities across India and Bangladesh.

Constitutional Provisions for New States:

  • Article 2: Parliament can create new states.
  • Article 3: Existing states have no veto power (can only express views).
  • Parliament can create new states by:
    • Separating territory from a state.
    • Uniting states or parts of states.
    • Uniting territories with parts of states.
  • Requires Presidential recommendation and referral to affected state legislatures for their views.


University Rankings: A Flawed System with Global Influence

What Rankings Do:

  • THE, QS, ARWU, U.S. News & World Report are major ranking systems.
  • Rank universities based on teaching, research, reputation, industry focus, and collaboration.
  • Influence educational policies and priorities worldwide.

Criticisms of Rankings:

  • Unidimensional: Focus on a single score neglecting universities’ diverse roles.
  • Over-represent established, wealthy, research-intensive universities in developed nations.
  • Arbitrary measures: Citations and reputation heavily influence research excellence scores.
  • Manipulation: Cases of universities inflating citations to climb rankings.
  • Favoritism: Potential bias towards universities hosting ranking system events.
  • Conflicts of interest: Private ranking entities may consult with universities.
  • Data security: Universities relinquish data control by participating in rankings.


  • Rankings incentivize some improvements but also harmful behaviors.
  • May produce negative long-term effects on higher education.


Loss of Tails in Humans and Apes: A Genetic Mystery Solved

The Culprit: AluY Snippet

  • A snippet of genetic code (AluY) inserted itself into the TBXT gene millions of years ago.
  • TBXT is known to influence tail development in some animals.
  • This altered TBXT gene, combined with AluY, led to tail loss in humans and apes.

Benefits of Being Tailless

  • Enhanced balance and mobility: Crucial for bipedalism (walking upright on two legs).
  • Upright posture: Facilitated use of hands for tool-making, etc.

What Tails Do

  • Balance and movement in various environments.
  • Communication (e.g., signaling in social interactions).
  • Body temperature regulation (in some species).

Hominoids and Tail Loss

  • All present-day hominoids (including humans) lack tails.
  • Even the earliest known hominoid (Proconsul) was tailless.
  • Humans have a tailbone (coccyx) – a remnant of our tailed ancestors.

Significance of the Discovery

  • Explains a key evolutionary change in humans and apes.
  • Links tail loss to bipedalism and tool use.
  • Hints at the genetic basis of some health issues.
  • Opens doors for further research into genes and disease evolution.



Seamounts: Underwater Mountains

What are Seamounts?

  • Underwater mountains rising from the seafloor with steep sides.
  • Formed by underwater volcanic eruptions (similar to how islands are formed).
  • Range in height from 1,000 meters to several kilometers.

Significance of Seamounts:

  • Provide habitat for deep-sea organisms like corals, sponges, and fish.
  • Influence ocean currents, causing nutrient-rich deep water to rise to the surface.


Lahore Resolution: A Pivotal Moment in Pakistan’s History

What it Was:

  • A formal statement by the All-India Muslim League in 1940.
  • Drafted by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan.
  • Called for creation of independent Muslim states in areas with Muslim majorities.
  • Notably absent: The word “Pakistan.”


  • Marked a shift towards a separate Muslim homeland.
  • Jinnah, previously advocating Hindu-Muslim unity, became a key figure for Pakistan.
  • Led to the creation of Pakistan in 1947.
  • Celebrated as Pakistan National Day.


Supreme Court Cracks Down on Misleading Patanjali Ads

The Case:

  • Supreme Court issued a contempt notice and banned Patanjali Ayurved’s medicine advertisements.
  • Indian Medical Association (IMA) accused Patanjali of:
    • Discrediting modern medicine and vaccination.
    • Making false claims about medicine efficacy (violating Drugs and Magic Remedies Act & Consumer Protection Act).


  • Deters misleading claims in medicine advertising.
  • Highlights the role of regulators (CCPA) and judiciary in enforcing advertising laws.

Consumer Protection Act, 2019:

  • Replaced the 1986 Act and strengthens consumer protection.
  • Bans false information about products and misleading advertisements.

Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA):

  • Established by the 2019 Act to enforce consumer rights.
  • Powers include:
    • Investigating consumer rights violations.
    • Ordering product recalls and stopping unfair practices/advertisements.
    • Imposing penalties for misleading advertisements.


Grey Zone Warfare: Blurring the Lines of Conflict

What it is:

  • An ambiguous space between peace and war in international relations.
  • Employs tactics that fall short of open warfare.
  • Examples include:
    • Economic coercion (debt traps, sanctions).
    • Cyberattacks and disinformation campaigns.
    • Proxy military actions (mercenaries).


  • Project strength and influence.
  • Normalize territorial claims through persistent presence.


  • China’s actions in the South China Sea.
  • Taiwan’s concerns about Chinese military activities.
  • US economic sanctions against China.


Green Tug Transition Programme (GTTP)

Aim: Convert 50% of Indian tugboats to Green Tugs by 2030.

Green Tugs:

  • Run on non-fossil fuels like methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen.
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from domestic shipping and port operations.

GTTP Initiatives:

  • Develops Green Hybrid Tugs:
    • First tug – “Ocean Grace” – built by Cochin Shipyard Limited.
  • Aims for Green Tugs in all major ports.


  • Contributes to India’s goal of reducing emissions by 50% (2030) and 70% (2047).

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