03 june 2020 : The Hindu Editorials Summary & Short Notes 

Mains Sure Shot 

GS-2 Mains

QUESTION: Role of International Institutions in curbing COVID-19 like pandemic and challenges they are facing these days. Critically analyse.

Topic- The Hindu Editorial: SEIZING THE MOVEMENT AT THE WHO

 

WHAT?

  • India and the chair of the WHO executive board.

 WHY IN NEWS?

  • Recently, the Minister of Health and Family Welfare of India Mr. Harsha Vardhan was elected the chair of WHO executive board.
  • The elevation to the position affords India an important platform to steer the global public health response to COVID-19.

 FOCUSSED AREAS FOR INDIA:

  • Review the COVID-19 response.
  • Epidemic prevention and control .
  • Equitable access to COVID-19 medicines and vaccines.
  • There should be a blanket ban on consumption and trade of rare species of wild animals at global level.
  • New international norms to increase the obligations of states.
  • Deepening cooperation and collaboration among member countries.

 CHALLENGES:

 (1). As the virus chain of transmission is broken, the focus should shift to identifying the animal-to-human transmission origins of COVID-19.

  • India needs to insist that epidemic prevention and control remain the international community’s foremost priority.

 

(2). India should focus on member states implementation of the International Health Regulations.

  • India should also lean on the WHO secretariat to fast track the “impartial, independent and comprehensive review” of the WHO’s and China’s early response.

 

(3). India needs to promote the establishment of an appropriate multilateral governance mechanism in WHO for ensuring equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines for all countries.

  • Voluntary pooling mechanism to collect patent rights and regulatory test data needs to be suitably tailored to the needs of this crisis.
  • Recently ,WHO director -general’s idea of creating voluntary pooling.

 

(4). The destruction of natural habitats and biodiversity loss needs to be taken much more seriously.

  • India must lead the call for a permanent ban on this trade and consumption of rare species.
  • New International norms will increase the obligations of states and powers of WHO in facilitating an EARLY DETECTION and pandemic’s notification.

 

LITTLE ABOUT WHO:

  • As it was set up on April 7, 1948 and it is UN’s specialised agency for health.
  • Its based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 194 member states, 150 country offices, 6 regional offices.
  • It provides leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards.

 FUNCTIONS:

  • The Health Assembly determines the policies of the organisation.
  • It supervises financial policies of the org. and reviews and approves the budget.
  • It report to the Economical and Social Council in accordance with any agreement between org. and UN.

 WHO AND INDIA:

  • India became a party on 12th Jan. 1948.
  • Regional office for South East Asia is located in New Delhi.
  • With coordination by Indian govt. WHO’s prog. on Small Pox eradication and it was eradicated in 1977.
  • Polio removed by India in partnership with UNICEF, WHO.

 

WORLD HEALTH CONCERNS AND WHO :

  • Air pollution and climate change.
  • Non communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer and hearth diseases increasing day by day.
  • Global Influenza Pandemic .
  • Weak Primary Health Care.
  • Vaccine hesitancy.
  • WHO’s inclination towards one particular nation, failed to give early information about COVID-19 like pandemic.

 

WAY FORWARD:

  • Finally, India must lead the call for a permanent and long term global solution and this should be taken more seriously.

 

 

Short Notes

Topic – SEIZING THE MOVEMENT AT THE WHO

 WHAT?

  • India and the chair of the WHO executive board.

 WHY IN NEWS?

  • Chair of WHO executive board to Mr. Harsha Vardhan + global public health response to COVID-19.

  FOCUSSED AREAS FOR INDIA:

  • Review the COVID-19 response+ Epidemic prevention and control , deepening cooperation, equitable access to Covid-19 medicines and vaccines, trade ban of rare species and new international norms.

 CHALLENGES:

  1. Identifying the animal-to-human transmission origins of COVID-19 + India needs to insist that epidemic prevention and control
  2. Implementation of the International Health Regulations + should WHO’s impartial and independent review.
  3. Promotion of multilateral governance mechanism.
  • Voluntary pooling mechanism .

       4.The destruction of natural habitats and biodiversity loss needs to be taken much more seriously.

  • Norms to EARLY DETECTION and pandemic’s notification.

 LITTLE ABOUT WHO:

  • As it was set up on April 7, 1948 and it is UN’s specialised agency for health.
  • Its based in Geneva, Switzerland + 194 members countries.

 FUNCTIONS:

  • Financial supervision + budget.
  • Report to the Economical and Social Council with agreement between org. and UN.

  WHO AND INDIA:

  • India became a party on 12th Jan. 1948.
  • Regional office SE Asia = New Delhi.
  • With WHO coordination India eradicated = Polio + Small Pox.

 WORLD HEALTH CONCERNS AND WHO :

  • Air pollution and climate change.
  • Non communicable diseases.
  • Global Influenza Pandemic + Weak Primary Health Care.
  • Vaccine hesitancy.

WAY FORWARD:

  • A permanent and long term global solution and this should be taken more seriously.

 

 

 

 

GS-1 Mains

QUESTION: Bring out the significances of various activities of IMD and discuss the nature and origin of Indian monsoon.

MONSOON BOUNTY

 

WHAT?

  • Monsoon onset in India.

 WHY IN NEWS?

  • The Indian Meteorological Department(IMD) has clearly defined the criteria for declaring onset of monsoon in India.

 INDIAN MONSOON:

  • Monsoon season brings in most of the rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. It is divided into two major seasons- South West Monsoons in summer and North-East monsoons in winters.

 UNDERSTANDING MONSOON:

  • Monsoon word comes from ‘MAUSIM’ i.e. Arabic word that means ‘season’ and is defined as a “SEASONAL REVERSAL OF WINDS”.
  • MONSOON 2020 ONSET: has set in over Kerala on June 1.
  • In May, IMD had forecast a four day delay but in early May, Western disturbances brought rains from Mediterranean and the impact of super cyclone Amphan in Bay of Bengal both cool down the temperature.

 IMD:  

  • Established in 1875.
  • It is an agency of Ministry of Earth Sciences of the GoI.
  • It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.

 CHALLENGES TO IMD’S MONOPOLY:

  • The only agency with the equipment to measure wind speeds and radiation at higher elevations along with multiple weather stations.
  • IMD gives outlook on how the monsoon might pan out over India and how much rain likely in July and August.
  • However, IMD faces competition from domestic and international companies in providing weather related services.

 COMPLEX NATURE OF CLIMATE AND IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE WEATHER FORECASTS-  

  • Inaccurate forecasts resulted into large scale losses to the agriculture sector and this happened in 2019, when IMD failed to communicate that 2019 would turn out to be the wettest in two decades.
  • Excess and torrential rains seem to have long-ranging impact with reports of a second consecutive year of a locust plague in India, can affect the Kharif crop badly.

 WAY FORWARD:

  • It is high time to improve science and forecasting techniques.
  • IMD should work at disseminating more precise localised weather forecasts with accuracy.
  • Particularly, in cyclone forecasts, IMD needs more focus on communicating weather forecasting even to a wider section of the population such as fishermen, farmers etc.

 

The Hindu Editorial Topic: MONSOON BOUNTY

 WHAT?

  • Monsoon onset in India.

 WHY IN NEWS?

  • Monsoon onset declaring definition by IMD.

 INDIAN MONSOON:

  • South West Monsoons in summer and North-East monsoons in winters.

 UNDERSTANDING MONSOON:

  • “SEASONAL REVERSAL OF WINDS” + from word ‘mausim’ means season.

 MONSOON 2020 ONSET: has set in over Kerala on June 1.

  • In May, IMD had forecast a four day delay .

 IMD:  

  • Established in 1875 + an agency of Ministry of Earth Sciences of the GoI
  • Responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.

 CHALLENGES TO IMD’S MONOPOLY:

  • IMD faces competition from domestic and international companies.

 COMPLEX NATURE OF CLIMATE AND IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE WEATHER FORECASTS-  

  • Inaccurate forecasts resulted into large scale losses to the agriculture sector.

  WAY FORWARD:

  • It is high time to improve science and forecasting techniques.
  • Disseminating more precise localised weather forecasts with accuracy.
  • More focus on communicating weather forecasting even to a wider section.

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