07th January 2019 : The Hindu Editorials Notes : Mains Sure Shot
Question – Analyse the importance of being included in the 8th schedule of the constitution with the example of Tulu language.(250 words)
Context – Tulu being demanded to be included in the 8th schedule.
What are scheduled languages?
- Scheduled languages are the languages that are mentioned in the eighth schedule of the Constitution.
- The 22 languages listed in the 8th schedule are Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Kannada, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu are included in the Eighth Schedule.
- The importance of giving a place in the eighth schedule is that, these languages get government recognition, official encouragement, UPSC exams can be attempted in these languages and they find a place on the currency notes too.
- According to the 2001 Census, India has 30 languages that are spoken by more than a million people each. Additionally, it has 122 languages that are spoken by at least 10,000 people each. It also has 1,599 languages, most of which are dialects.
- These are restricted to specific regions and many of them are on the verge of extinction. We must accommodate this plethora of languages in our cultural discourse and administrative apparatus.
- Article 29 of the Constitution provides that a section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture have the right to conserve the same.
- Because that can alone strengthen the oneness, that can alone strengthen the sense of unity and that can alone build up India as a multi-lingual, multi-ethenic,united, strong, prosperous and a forward looking nation.
- The Yuelu Proclamation, made by the UNESCO at Changsha, The People’s Republic of China, in 2018, says: “The protection and promotion of linguistic diversity helps to improve social inclusion and partnerships, helps to reduce the gender and social inequality between different native speakers, guarantee the rights for native speakers of endangered, minority, indigenous languages, as well as non-official languages and dialects to receive education, enhance the social inclusion level and social decision-making ability by encouraging them to participate in a series of actions to promote cultural diversity, endangered language protection, and the protection of intangible cultural heritage…”.
The case for including more languages in the 8th schedule:
- Among the legion of languages in India, the Constitution has 22 blue-eyed languages. They are protected in Schedule VIII of the Constitution. But many languages that are kept out of this favoured position are in some ways more deserving to be included in the Eighth Schedule. For example, Sanskrit, an Eighth Schedule language, has only 24,821 speakers (2011 Census). Manipuri, another scheduled language, has only 17,61,079 speakers. However, many unscheduled languages have a sizeable number of speakers: Bhili/Bhilodi has 1,04,13,637 speakers; Gondi has 29,84,453 speakers; Garo has 11,45,323; Ho has 14,21,418; Khandeshi, 18,60,236; Khasi, 14,31,344; and Oraon, 19,88,350.
Tulu as an example:
- Tulu is a Dravidian language whose speakers are concentrated in two coastal districts of Karnataka and Kasaragod district of Kerala. Kasaragod district is called ‘Sapta bhasha Samgama Bhumi (the confluence of seven languages)’, and Tulu is among the seven. The Census reports 18,46,427 native speakers of Tulu in India.
- The Tulu-speaking people are larger in number than speakers of Manipuri and Sanskrit, which have the Eighth Schedule status. Robert Caldwell (1814-1891), in his book, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages, called Tulu as “one of the most highly developed languages of the Dravidian family”.
Advantages of being included in the 8th schedule:
- forts are being made to include Tulu in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. If included in the Eighth Schedule, Tulu would get recognition from the Sahitya Akademi. Tulu books would be translated into other recognised Indian languages. Members of Parliament and MLAs could speak in Tulu in Parliament and State Assemblies, respectively. Candidates could write all-India competitive examinations like the Civil Services exam in Tulu.
- India has a lot to learn from the Yuelu Proclamation. Placing of all the deserving languages on equal footing will promote social inclusion and national solidarity. It will reduce the inequalities within the country to a great extent.
- So, Tulu, along with other deserving languages, should be included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution in order to substantially materialise the promise of equality of status and opportunity mentioned in the Preamble.
Question – There is a rise in the number of ad hoc teachers in the higher education system in India. Analyse its effects.(250 words)
Who is an ad-hoc teacher?
- An ad–hoc teacher is one who has been appointed without a proper sanctioned post or without proper selection procedures, mostly to take care of immediate contingencies.
- An ad hoc appointment may be made “in case there is a sudden, unexpected and short vacancy, arising out of sudden sickness or death, on medical grounds (including maternity leave), abrupt leave or any other situation that may disrupt the normal process of teaching learning.”
- There are an estimated 4,500 ad hoc teachers in Delhi University itself (ie. about 40% of its teaching force).
- A regressive culture of ad hocism has unfortunately percolated through India’s education system and engendered a sense of despondency among the temporary and contractual teachers. This class of educators remains on the periphery of the system and is not allowed to mingle with the mainstream segment of teachers, even when they fulfil the rigorous guidelines that the UGC has laid down for the recruitment of teachers to permanent positions. Despite the guidelines, many amongst this cohort are hired only for a fixed number of months, and at the end of every academic session their services are dispensed with.
- There are many factors that have pushed the education system to the brink of collapse. Among these is the fact that there is lack of job security among a vast majority of teachers who have been rendering their services on ad hoc or contractual basis in universities, colleges and schools.
- Development experts say that a healthy and civilised society depends in part on the quality of higher education. However, there is less recognition that while a fulfilled teacher can create a healthy society, a frustrated teacher can be equally destructive.
- Without any certainty of future, as no job security act is applicable in their case, they have no choice but to reappear for interviews at different places at the start of each academic session. Add to this, the humiliating and exploitative experience of such teachers who do not receive the full salary that they are entitled to in accordance with the guidelines of the UGC and are, instead, often appointed on a consolidated sum considerably lower than stipulated amounts.
- The knock-on effects of these unchecked distortions in the teacher compensation systems can be profound. When a well-qualified teacher is compelled to bear the brunt of financial exploitation, he desperately seeks other measures to enhance his income and make up for the losses.
- Inevitably this leads to demands that students join private coaching or tuition classes, to augment the meagre official pay. Often, the quality of educational inputs provided in such settings declines considerably.
- As a result it is the higher education system that is being affected. No matter how brilliant the mind of educators, if they are operating under the fear of expulsion or some other such threat, they are likely to be incapable of delivering the goods.
- To restore India’s long-term developmental prospects there is no choice for the government but to revamp its flawed education policy which has created and encouraged the scourge of ad hocism in our paralysed higher education system.