The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : India’s Demographic Journey

 GS-1 Mains Exam : Society

Revision Notes

World Population Day Reminder:

This day highlights how population growth can impact a country’s development, especially concerning poverty, health, and gender equality. India, like many developing nations, faced concerns about rapid population increase in the 1960s and 1970s.

India’s Demographic Wins:

  • Family Planning Success: India achieved a significant decline in fertility rates. This means people are having fewer children, which can lead to a smaller dependent population (children and elderly) in the future.

  • Health Improvements: India has seen a dramatic decrease in deaths, particularly among mothers and children. This is likely due to better healthcare access and infrastructure.

Shifting Population Landscape:

India’s population is getting older. While this is partly due to fewer children being born, it’s also because people are living longer. This presents both opportunities and challenges.

Demographic Dividend Potential:

  • Advantage: With a larger working-age population compared to dependents, India has a window of opportunity (demographic dividend) to boost economic growth if it can create enough jobs for this young workforce.

Challenges to Address:

  • Planning for the Elderly: As the population ages, India needs to develop a long-term plan for geriatric care and social security systems to support its growing elderly population.

  • Urban Strain: Rapid migration from rural areas to cities can overwhelm urban infrastructure. India needs to invest in these areas to handle the influx of people.

  • Women’s Empowerment Gap: Low female labor force participation and lack of political representation for women can hinder India’s overall progress, especially towards the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Development Goals:

  • Basic needs: Food, shelter, and health are central to “development.”

  • SDGs 1, 2 & 3: “No Poverty,” “Zero Hunger,” and “Good Health” are crucial for achieving development.

India’s Progress:

  • Poverty Reduction: Significant strides made! Proportion living below the poverty line dropped from 48% (1990) to 10% (2019).

    • Key programs: MGNREGA (2006) for rural employment and Janani Suraksha Yojana (2005) for cash benefits to pregnant women.

  • Food Security: Green Revolution made India self-sufficient in food production, averting a major crisis.

    • Hunger reduction: 18.3% (2001) to 16.6% (2021).

    • Challenge: Malnutrition – India has 1/3rd of global burden.

    • PM’s POSHAN Abhiyaan (2018) aims to improve nutrition, but achieving “Zero Hunger” by 2030 seems difficult.

  • Healthcare: Remarkable progress with declining mortality rates.

    • Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) decreased from 384.4 (2000) to 102.7 (2020).

    • Though not near SDG targets yet, India seems to be on the right track with improved healthcare quality and coverage.

Challenges and Concerns:

  • Inequality: Top 10% of India holds 77% of wealth (Oxfam). Unequal distribution of development benefits hinders true “sustainable development.”

  • Wealth Gap: Top 1% holds 40% of wealth, highlighting limited impact of GDP growth for the poorest.

  • Hunger and Nutrition: India ranks 111th out of 125 in the Global Hunger Index (2023). Stunting, wasting, underweight children, and women’s anemia pose serious challenges.

Double Burden: India faces a growing problem of both communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including early NCD onset and rising healthcare needs of the elderly population.

The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : Navigating Political Tensions

 GS-2 Mains Exam : Polity

Revision Notes

Note: This editorials are solely for informational updates; direct questions cannot be formulated

The Need for Harmony Between Governors and Chief Ministers

The Issue at Hand

  • West Bengal Governor C.V. Ananda Bose’s recent call for a report from the State government regarding actions taken against two police officers has intensified the ongoing conflict between Raj Bhavan and the State government.

  • Governor Bose has reached out to the Union government and Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, expressing concerns about the conduct of Kolkata City Police Commissioner Vineet Goyal and Deputy Commissioner of Police Indira Mukherjee.

  • His grievance stems from remarks made by these officers concerning an investigation into a sexual harassment complaint against him by a Raj Bhavan employee.

  • Although the complaint has not proceeded — owing to Governor Bose’s immunity under Article 361 of the Constitution — the situation remains contentious.

  • The Governor contends that the officers violated conduct rules by discussing an investigation that cannot legally be pursued.

  • Additionally, he believes Commissioner Goyal obstructed a group seeking to discuss post-election violence grievances with him, despite his willingness to meet them.

  • Governor Bose has also sought a report on actions taken concerning incidents of mob violence, including a woman being disrobed in public and a couple being flogged, which is a justifiable request.

The Governor’s Role and Authority

  • Article 167 authorizes the Governor to request information from the State government.

  • However, whether disciplinary action against central service officers — typically under State government jurisdiction when serving the State — can be initiated at the Governor’s or Union government’s behest remains a complex issue.

  • Governor Bose has cited the harassment complaint circumstances to argue it is a “concocted allegation” facilitated by the police.

  • Despite this, escalating such matters by demanding punitive actions against officers may not benefit anyone.

A Broader Pattern of Conflict

  • Personal and institutional conflicts between Governors and Chief Ministers are becoming increasingly common, with the current situation potentially seen as another instance of Raj Bhavan’s politicization.

  • Such conflicts reflect broader tensions between the Centre and State governments, including disputes over Bill assent and the administration of oaths to newly elected legislators.

  • Notably, there is also a defamation suit filed by Governor Bose against Chief Minister Banerjee.


In conclusion, it is crucial for constitutional functionaries to exercise caution and step back from escalating political confrontations. Maintaining their impartiality and adhering to constitutional principles are essential to preserving the integrity of their offices and the institutions they represent. Governors and Chief Ministers must prioritize governance over political disputes, ensuring that their actions serve the best interests of the public and uphold democratic values. By fostering cooperation and mutual respect, they can navigate conflicts effectively and contribute to the stability and progress of the State.

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