The Hindu Editorial Summary Topic-1 : Ladakh Climate Crisis: A Fight for Humanity’s Survival

GS-1 or GS-3 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Examine the role of government initiatives in addressing climate change and environmental degradation in the Himalayan region, with a specific focus on Ladakh


  • Sonam Wangchuk’s hunger strike highlights the critical state of the Himalayan ecosystem due to climate change.

The Himalayas:

  • Ladakh, at 11,500 feet, is home to 97% indigenous tribes reliant on pastoral life.
  • The region faces threats from climate change (floods, droughts, landslides) and pollution.
  • The Himalayas, with 15,000 glaciers, are the source of major rivers (Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra).
  • Melting glaciers threaten both mountain communities and downstream populations.

Government Initiatives:

  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) launched in 2008.
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) focuses on assessing climate vulnerability.

Issues with Development Projects:

  • Rapid infrastructure projects in Ladakh (bridges, roads, tunnels, airports) post-UT formation.
  • Projects like Zojila tunnel, Kargil-Zanskar highway, and solar plants raise concerns.
  • 2023 Ladakh UT Industrial Land Allotment Policy aims to attract investments.
  • Border Roads Organisation (BRO) and NHIDCL spearhead many projects.
  • Authorities ignore past disasters (loss of life, livelihood) in the Himalayas.
  • Supreme Court committee suggested limiting pilgrims to Char Dham shrines’ carrying capacity.
  • Ignoring expert advice on hydroelectric projects in the para-glacial zone.
  • Environmental damage harms poor migrant workers, residents, tourists, and pilgrims.
  • Project developers and sanctioning bodies escape accountability.


  • Climate activists’ concerns are neglected despite legal and committee efforts.
  • Development shouldn’t disrupt the fragile Himalayan ecosystem and biodiversity.
  • Protecting the Himalayas and its people is our collective responsibility.


The Hindu Editorial Summary Topic-2 : ISRO Achieves “Zero Orbital Debris” Milestone

GS-3 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Discuss the technological innovation behind the POEM-3 orbital station and its implications for minimizing space debris.


ISRO’s PSLV-C58/XPoSat mission minimized orbital debris by strategically re-entering the rocket’s fourth stage.

POEM: Reusing Rocket Stages

  • Developed by Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) for low-cost space platforms.
  • Uses spent fourth stage of PSLV rocket as a platform for scientific experiments.
  • First used in PSLV-C53 mission (June 2022) for in-orbit experiments.
  • Transformed spent stage (PSLV-C58) into POEM-3 orbital station before atmospheric re-entry.
  • Powered by solar panels, lithium-ion battery, and navigation system.
  • First demonstrated in PSLV-C44 mission (2019) with Kalamsat-V2 payload.

Significance: Minimizing Space Debris

  • POEM-3 lowered its orbit (350 km) for faster atmospheric re-entry and debris burn-up.
  • Growing number of satellites creates space debris issue in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
  • LEO debris includes:
    • Parts of spacecraft, rockets, defunct satellites.
    • Fragments from anti-satellite missile tests.
    • High-speed objects posing risk to operational satellites.
  • LEO (100 km – 2,000 km) is crucial for navigation, communication, and intelligence data.
  • ISRO report (2022): 2,533 objects launched globally in 2022 (179 launches).
  • Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) at 36,000 km also has debris, but less.

Space Debris Concerns

  • Recent incident (March 2023): Debris from International Space Station damaged a house in Florida.
  • More satellite launches and anti-satellite tests increase debris through collisions and breakups.
  • Debris creates unusable orbital zones and triggers cascading collisions.

Current Regulations

  • No international space laws for LEO debris exist.
  • Most spacefaring nations follow IADC’s Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines (2002), endorsed by UN (2007).


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