Selection of New Election Commissioners

Election of New ECs

  • Under the new law, a three-member Selection Committee, including Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Union Home Minister Amit Shah, and Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha, Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury, selected the two ECs.
  • The Selection Committee chose from a shortlisted panel of six names, shortlisted by a committee headed by the Union Minister for Law and Justice.

History of the Process

  • Article 324 of the Constitution vests election superintendence in an Election Commission, which comprises the CEC and other ECs appointed by the President.
  • Until October 1989, the EC had only a CEC; multi-member status followed but was rescinded in January 1990.
  • A 1991 law fixed service conditions but lacked an appointment process, leaving the President to make appointments.
  • Conventionally, the Law Ministry presents a panel to the Prime Minister, who recommends an EC to the President, and senior ECs usually ascend to CEC.

Supreme Court Ruling

  • In Anoop Baranwal v. Union of India, a Constitution Bench ruled appointments should involve the PM, Leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha (or the largest opposition party leader), and the CJI.
  • Parliament enacted the 2023 Act in response, removing the CJI from the panel and adding a Union Minister.


  • Critics argue the Act’s exclusion of the CJI from the panel gives the executive a two-to-one majority.
  • The government contends the Act maintains the CJI’s role as a stop-gap measure until a permanent law.


  • While aiming to formalize the appointment process, preserving the EC’s autonomy is vital for democratic integrity.



Equity Issue in IPCC Reports

IPCC Assessment Reports

  • Typically consist of three Working Group reports and one synthesis report, assessing scientific literature on climate change.
  • Currently in the Seventh Assessment cycle (AR7).

Accessing Future Scenarios

  • Uses Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to estimate pathways for limiting earth’s surface warming.
  • IAMs integrate various disciplines to provide policy-relevant guidelines for climate action.

Study Findings

  • Analyzed 556 scenarios in IPCC’s AR6 report, projecting continued disparities in income, energy use, and emissions between developed and developing countries up to 2050.
  • Per-capita GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and West Asia projected to remain below global average by 2050.
  • Inequities observed in consumption of goods/services and energy/fossil fuels between Global North and South.
  • Developing countries forecasted to bear burden of both mitigation action and carbon dioxide removal.

Essentiality of Equity

  • UNFCCC enshrines principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.
  • Recognizes richer countries’ greater capacity to undertake climate action.
  • IPCC scenarios often prioritize technical and economic feasibility over equity principles.
  • Equity implies developed regions should accelerate towards net negative emissions and share carbon budget with less developed regions.


  • IPCC scenarios need to prioritize both equity and environmental sustainability, as emphasized in the study.


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