The Hindu Editorial Topic : Changing Cancer Nomenclature: A Paradigm Shift for Improved Treatment Outcomes
GS-2 Heath or GS-3 Sci. and Tech


Question : Discuss the rationale behind the proposed revamp of cancer classification, prioritizing molecular characteristics over tissue of origin. Analyze how this shift could potentially improve treatment outcomes.


Question : How do traditional methods of cancer treatment, such as surgery and radiation, align with the current organ-based classification system? Discuss the limitations of this approach and analyze how molecular classification could address these limitations.


Traditional Classification vs. Molecular Classification

  • Traditional methods classify cancers based on the organ of origin(breast, lung, etc.).
  • Treatment targets the affected organ using surgery and radiation.
  • This approach may not be optimal for metastatic cancers(cancer that has spread).

The Need for Change

  • Most cancer deaths are from metastasis.
  • Cancers with the same origin can have different genetic mutations.
  • Mutations aren’t limited to specific organs.
  • Precision oncologytargets these mutations with specific drugs.

Sequential Testing and Delays:

  • Example: Nivolumab trial encompassed various cancer types (melanoma, kidney) sharing a specific protein receptor target.
  • Organ-based classification led to sequential trials, delaying access to effective treatments.
  • Molecular classification streamlines trials, benefiting patients with shared mutations.

Benefits of Molecular Classification

  • Faster access to life-saving drugs.
  • Reduced time for clinical trials (fewer needed).
  • Increased trial efficiency (one trial for a mutation across cancers).
  • Improved patient understanding of treatment rationale.
  • Reduced heterogeneity in cancer types.

Challenges and Considerations

  • Requires wider availability and accessibility of genetic testing.
  • Educational shift needed for medical professionals.
  • Importance of establishing dedicated teams for analyzing molecular profiles.
  • Wider accessibility of genetic testing is crucial for adopting this approach.

Way Forward:

  • Accessible genetic testing crucial for implementing new classification.
  • Relevance in regions like India necessitates wider availability of genetic tests.
  • Access to genetic tests is foundational for transitioning to molecular nomenclature.


  • Transitioning from organ-based to molecular cancer classification promises improved treatment outcomes.
  • Accessibility to genetic testing is a critical prerequisite for this transformation.




The Hindu Editorial Topic : Guaranteed Minimum Support Price (MSP): An Ethical Imperative

GS-3 Mains : Economy

Question  : Analyze the effectiveness of the current MSP system in ensuring fair prices for farmers. How does the implementation of MSP impact farmers’ livelihoods and agricultural sustainability?


Question : Discuss the ethical implications of not guaranteeing MSP for farmers. What are the broader societal consequences of failing to address farmer distress and perpetuating the produce and perish trap?



  • Upcoming elections bring agrarian issues to the forefront.
  • Farmers demand fair pricing for produce and legal guarantee for Minimum Support Price (MSP).

The Case for Guaranteed MSP:

  • Food Security:MSP is crucial to maintain self-sufficiency in food production.
  • Market Failure:Farmers lack bargaining power, leading to low prices.
  • Remunerative Price Discovery:MSP ensures a minimum price for crops.
  • Current Scenario:
    • MSP announced for 23 crops (mostly food crops).
    • Poor implementation – only 6% of farmers benefit (mainly wheat & paddy growers).
    • Most transactions below MSP, leading to debt and farmer suicides.
    • Need to ensure Swaminathan Commission’s MSP recommendation (50% profit margin).

Legal Backing for MSP:

  • Articles in Indian Constitution and UN Declaration on Peasants’ Rights support MSP.
  • Sugarcane farmers already benefit from statutory MSP.
  • “Farmers’ Right to Guaranteed Remunerative MSP for Agricultural Commodities Bill” proposed in 2018.

Implementation Strategies:

  • Amend State APMC Acts or Central Essential Commodities Act to enforce MSP.
  • Improve crop planning, market intelligence, and pre-sowing measures.
  • Develop post-harvest infrastructure for storage, transportation, and processing.

Addressing Concerns:

  • Legal MSP won’t distort markets, it will address existing market failures.
  • Effective procurement and distribution (National Food Security Act & PM-AASHA) are crucial.


  • Farmers currently receive only 30% of consumer price.
  • Legally binding MSP essential for fair pricing and addressing farmer distress.
  • Intermediaries may resist MSP guarantee due to reduced share.


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