The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : India’s Myanmar Policy: A Need for Rethink?

 GS-2 Mains Exam : IR

Revision Notes


Question : Discuss the impact of India’s strategic interests on its Myanmar policy post the 2021 military coup. How does this approach compare to China’s influence in the region?

The Challenge:

India’s current Myanmar policy prioritizes narrow strategic interests over broader goals. This limits India’s influence compared to China.

The Situation:

  • February 2021: Myanmar’s military seized power in a coup.
  • India justifies its engagement with the junta to protect its strategic interests.
  • The editorial argues that a clear distinction between “values” and “interests” is difficult in foreign policy. Both terms are subjective and depend on a country’s perspective.

A New Approach:

The editorial proposes a more progressive policy focused on:

  • Democracy: India, as the largest regional democracy, can leverage its experience to support Myanmar’s pro-democracy movement.
  • Federalism: Myanmar’s pro-democracy groups, led by the National Unity Government (NUG), aim for a federal constitution. India’s experience with federal governance can be valuable.

India’s Advantage:

  • Both China and India can sell arms to Myanmar.
  • However, India offers a unique advantage: expertise in managing a federal democracy. This “soft power” can counter China’s influence.

Halt Weapon Sales:

  • India has sold military equipment to Myanmar’s junta since the 2021 coup.
  • The junta uses these weapons against civilians.
  • India should stop all arms sales to Myanmar.

Open Humanitarian Corridors:

  • India should create corridors to deliver aid to civilians affected by the conflict in Myanmar.
  • This requires revoking plans to fence the border and reinstating the Free Movement Regime (FMR).
  • Mizoram, with its existing aid infrastructure, could be a starting point.
  • Collaborate with NGOs and learn from Thailand’s cross-border aid deliveries.
  • Ensure aid reaches civilians, not the junta, through strict vetting.

Treat Refugees Humanely:

  • Regardless of India’s refugee convention status, it should treat refugees humanely.
  • The Indian Constitution and international law allow for this.
  • The principle of non-refoulement discourages deporting refugees to danger zones.
  • India should uphold its image as “Vishwabandhu” (friend of the world) by supporting the people of Myanmar.



The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : Rethinking India’s Economic Approach

 GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes

Question : Critically analyze the effectiveness of India’s economic reforms over the past decade in addressing the needs of its population. Why have these reforms fallen short in providing affordable food, quality healthcare, and education?

The Problem: Discontent with Current Policy

  • Voters’ dissatisfaction reflects economic problems: unemployment and high inflation, especially food prices.
  • Food prices are a key factor in election outcomes (e.g., 2004 NDA government).
  • Unemployment has risen since 2014.
  • Real earnings of workers (especially self-employed) have declined.

Past Reforms Fell Short

  • Policy changes haven’t significantly impacted economic forces (demand or supply).
  • Growth hasn’t addressed people’s needs (e.g., affordable food, quality healthcare, education).
  • 75% of Indians can’t afford a healthy diet (FAO).

Focus on the Wrong Things?

  • Past decade’s policies prioritized:
    • Attracting foreign investment
    • Digital payments
    • Manufacturing subsidies
    • Highway construction
    • Cash transfers to farmers and housewives
    • Macroeconomic stability
  • These haven’t boosted private investment or delivered desired outcomes.

Food Security Challenges:

  • Rising staple food prices indicate an underdeveloped economy.
  • Pulses production lags behind demand, creating a protein deficiency.
  • Cold storage and transportation issues hinder access to fruits and vegetables.

Strained Infrastructure:

  • Indian Railways fail to meet the rise in long-distance migrant workers.
  • Focus on high-end trains (Vande Bharat, bullet train) ignores urgent needs.
  • Major cities like Delhi and Bengaluru face water scarcity.

The Role of Public Sector:

  • Reliable infrastructure is crucial for daily life and economic activity.
  • This includes transportation, electricity, sanitation, and waste disposal.
  • Private sector is unlikely to provide these services adequately.


  • The government should address these immediate pressure points.
  • Liberalization reforms are less important than tackling core issues.
  • Aiming for a developed India by 2047 requires a course correction now.


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