24/5/2020 : The Hindu Editorials Notes : Mains Sure Shot


Q-Raising India-Nepal issues are the result of Politics’. Elucidate the statement?



  • India-Nepal border issue that making the countries tense.
  • Nepal endorsed a new political map of the country that showed Kalapani and Lipulekh as part of Dharchula district of Nepal.


  • India released new maps in November 2019, of newly created Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh.
  • In that map, Kashmir was part of Jammu and Kashmir which is Pakistan-occupied, where Gilgit-Baltistan was included in Ladakh.
  • Kalapani, Lipulekh and Limpiyadhura showed as part of Pithoragarh district in Uttarakhand state.
  • Nepal government has created a protest against the inclusion of Kalapani area in India’s far west, claiming it as Nepalese territory
  • Now Kalapani and Lepu Lekh are the area of dispute and protest.


The Treaty of Sugauli (1816):

Before the Treaty, the Nepalese kingdom stretched from the Sutlej River in the West to the Teesta River in the East. Nepal lost the Anglo-Nepalese War that resulted Treaty limited Nepal to its present territories.

  • It established the boundary line of Nepal.
  • Signed between the East India Company and King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.
  • The Mahakali River demarcated the western boundary of Nepal and end of the war . But the origin of this river caused dispute.

Major Concern:

Border dispute between the nations:


  • claims River Mahakali originates at Limpiyadhura, Northwest of Lipulekh, and flows Southwest.
  • Thus all the territories East of Kali (Mahakali) river, including Limpiyadhura, Kalapani and Lipulekh, belong to Nepal.
  • Nepal Prime minister’s diverting the issue by nationalism against India because of his incompetence to fulfil the basic need of the people.


  • India claims based on the river’s name as historical reference.
  •  For India Kali Ganga (as Mahakali called in Uttarakhand) originates in black water springs at Kalapani (name by area) below the Lipulekh Pass and flows South and slightly East.

Unique Historical References:

  • The British used the Lepu Lekh pass for trade purpose with Tibet and China.
  • The Survey of India maps (since1870s) showed the area of Lipu Lekh down to Kalapani as part of British India.
  • Both the Rana rulers of Nepal and the Nepalese Kings accepted the boundary without any objection with the government of India after India’s Independence.
  • As a reward for the military help rendered by Jung Bahadur Rana in controlling the 1857 uprising,
  • The areas of Nepalgunj and Kapilvastu were restituted to Nepal by Britisher’s but they did not return any part of Garhwal or Kumaon, including the Kalapani area, to Nepal.
  • India’s present borders, not just with Nepal, but with many of its other neighbors, were drawn by the erstwhile British regime. India inherited the boundaries of British India. It cannot now unravel the historic past.


Raising Concerns

  • The war of maps and words really points to is the steady deterioration of the India-Nepal relationship.
  • The border issue has creating threat to open borders and the free movement of people of both the nations.
  • The Tensions has worst by Mr. Oli’s jibe’s harsh comment on India as  “Indian virus looks more lethal than the one from China”.
  • The Indian Army Chief, said its Chine’s hand (indirectly) behind Nepal’s new assertiveness. This make the situation more worse and may provoked more anti-India nationalism in Nepal if its Nepal’s mindset.

Successful Boundary resolved examples:

  • India has solved India – Bangladesh land settlement dispute.
  • India has solved India – Bangladesh Maritime boundary dispute with the help of the Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration despite of the fact the court’s decision was against India.


  • By deteriorating India-Nepal relations other will gain benefit. There is need for the two countries to lower the temperature and defuse the issue. They must invest time and effort to find a solution.
  • India and Nepal must not let their differences grow into a full-blown diplomatic crisis.
  • Given the importance of ties with Nepal, India must not delay dealing with the matter, and at a time when it already has its hands full with the pandemic and a faceoff with China in Ladakh and Sikkim.
  •  This is a matter best handled bilaterally, through quiet diplomacy.

Fodder Points:

  • Nepal and India have people to people contact, both respect culture and history,
  • Common understanding should have to focus,
  • India’s first Prime Minister P.J.Nehru quotedin his book about Nepal as, only un-ruled south Asian Country.
  • Have to make friendly but effective agreements.

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