The Hindu Editorial Topic-1 : TB Control in India: A Human-Centered Approach

Syllabus : GS-2 Health

Question : Examine the multifaceted dimensions of TB control in India, highlighting the importance of person-centered care and addressing social determinants of health. Suggest strategies to bridge the gap between policy and implementation for more effective TB control efforts.


  • TB remains a major public health challenge in India and globally.
  • Access to quality TB care (diagnosis, treatment, support) remains an issue.
  • A paradigm shift is needed to focus on the needs and experiences of patients and communities.

Understanding the Problem:

  • We haven’t fully understood the lived experiences of TB patients.
  • TB is often over-medicalized, neglecting its human, social, and economic dimensions.
  • Positive steps have been taken on nutritional support and addressing stigma.

Recommendations for Person-Centered Care:

  • Bridge the gap between policy and reality:
    • Expand TB testing facilities, especially in rural areas.
    • Ensure availability of free, affordable, and quality-assured TB drugs.
    • Increase access to molecular testing (gold standard for diagnosis).
    • Address recent stockouts of drugs and diagnostics.
  • Make care more humane:
    • Provide mental health support and gender-responsive care.
    • Strengthen community-based TB care models.
    • Empower frontline healthcare workers for comprehensive care.
  • Invest in supply chains and decentralize TB services.
  • Address social determinants of health:
    • Poverty alleviation
    • Improved nutrition
    • Well-ventilated housing
    • Better air quality

The Way Forward:

  • TB is not just a health crisis, but also an economic one.
  • Technology and innovation can improve TB care efforts.
  • Tackling root causes and investing in better vaccines are crucial for elimination.
  • A concerted effort is needed to prioritize person-centered care, social determinants, and innovation.

Additional Notes:

  • TB costs India billions of dollars annually.
  • Empowering local communities is key to reducing stigma and improving access.



The Hindu Editorial Topic-2 : Coral Reef Decline and Recovery Efforts

Syllabus : GS-1 or GS-3 Environment

Question: Discuss the factors contributing to the decline of coral reefs globally and elaborate on the efforts aimed at their recovery. How can international cooperation play a pivotal role in addressing the root cause of coral reef degradation?

Global Warming Threatens Coral Reefs:

  • Rising sea temperatures cause coral bleaching and death.
  • Corals expel symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in hot water, losing color and nutrients.
  • Ocean acidification (from CO2) reduces calcium carbonate for coral skeletons.

Coral Reef Importance:

  • Coral reefs are vital ecosystems for marine life.
  • Lakshadweep islands in India are an example of coral reef formations.
  • The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system.

Coral Bleaching Examples:

  • The U.S. lost half its Caribbean reefs in 2005 due to bleaching.
  • Concerns about coal mining and fossil fuel use threaten the Great Barrier Reef.
  • Rising sea levels threaten island nations like Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

Coral Polyps and Communication:

  • Coral reefs are built by colonies of polyps (sac-like animals).
  • Polyps reproduce and create massive reef structures over generations.
  • Polyps use sound to communicate with each other.
  • Healthy and unhealthy colonies may produce different sounds.

Coral Reef Conservation:

  • Coral reefs have thrived for millions of years and support diverse marine life.
  • Strict conservation efforts are crucial to protect coral reefs.
  • Research on sound and other methods for coral recovery is ongoing.

Additional Notes:

  • Focus on finding solutions to address the root cause: global warming.
  • Importance of international cooperation to combat climate change.

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