QUESTION : Discuss the implications of the new Jammu and Kashmir UT land laws.

 

REAL ESTATE 

 

WHY IN NEWS ?

 The changes in land laws in Jammu and Kashmir notified by the Centre on October 26 allow the purchase of land by those who are not permanent residents of the Union Territory, for the first time.

 

LATEST CHANGES IN LAND LAWS :

  1. Under the newly introduced J&K Development Act, the term “being permanent resident of the State” as a criteria has been “omitted”, paving the way for investors outside J&K to invest in the UT.
  2. No land used for agriculture purposes shall be used for any non-agricultural purposes except with the permission of the district collector.
  3. The government may now allow transfer of land “in favour of a person or an institution for the purpose of promotion of healthcare or senior secondary or higher or specialized education in J&K”.
  4. Also, No sale, gift, exchange, or mortgage of the land shall be valid in favour of a person who is not an agriculturist.
  5. An Army officer not below the rank of Corps Commander can declare an area as “Strategic Area” within a local area, only for direct operational and training requirements of the armed forces.
  6. No domicile or permanent resident certificate is required to purchase non-agricultural land in the UT.

 

ADVANTAGES :

  • Free movement of people, and an integrated national market can advance development
  • Will improve local people’s livelihood
  • Educational(RTE will be applicable) :Establishment Institutes like IITs, IIMs ,they will improve the quality of education
  • Economical :Many new industries may attract means more employment generation
  • Will fulfill the aspirations of Artice 19 : to move freely throughout the territory of India and to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
  • More revenue generation of govt from tourism

  

DISADVANTAGES :

  • More burden on natural resources and environmental pollution
  • Internal security issues
  • Commercialization of land and property
  • Cultural issues i.e. intermingling of people

 

ISSUES INVOLVED :

 o For more than two years now, J&K has been without an elected government. All the changes being introduced in the UT have been steamrolled by the Centre rather than being legislated by elected representatives of the people.

 o This has created suspicions in the J&K that the Centre is gradually disempowering the local population and consolidating control through executive power.

 

JAMMU AND KASHMIR REORGANIZATION ACT, 2019

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019, provides for reorganisation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir into the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Ladakh.
  • The Bill reorganises the state of Jammu and Kashmir into: (i) the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir with a legislature, and (ii) the Union Territory of Ladakh without a legislature.
  • The Union Territory of Ladakh will comprise Kargil and Leh districts, and the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will comprise the remaining territories of the existing state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be administered by the President, through an administrator appointed by him known as the Lieutenant Governor.
  • The Union Territory of Ladakh will be administered by the President, through a Lieutenant Governor appointed by him.
  • The High Court of Jammu and Kashmir will be the common High Court for the Union Territories of Ladakh, and Jammu and Kashmir. Further, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will have an Advocate General to provide legal advice to the government of the Union Territory.
  • The Legislative Council of the state of Jammu and Kashmir will be abolished. Upon dissolution, all Bills pending in the Council will lapse.

 

CONCLUSION :

 The Centre’s policy towards J&K must be buttressed(supported) by a robust  political process that enables people’s participation and ensures stability with growth and development

 

QUESTION :  What do you understand by Deepfake? Discuss the challenges posed by Deepfake.

 

COUNTERING DEEPFAKES , THE MOST SERIOUS AI THREAT 

 

WHAT ?

 Menace of Deepfakes

 

WHY IN NEWS ?

 Deepfakes have emerged as a new tool to spread computational propaganda and disinformation at scale and with speed.

 

WHAT IS DEEPFAKE ?

  • Deepfakes are the synthetic digital media content (video, audio, and images) manipulated using Artificial Intelligence.
  • Deepfakes use a form of artificial intelligence called deep learning to make videos/images of fake events, hence the name deepfake
  • Deepfakes leverage powerful techniques from machine learning and artificial intelligence to manipulate or generate visual and audio content

 

POSITIVE SIDE OF DEEPFAKES :

 

  1. Accessibility

 AI-Generated Synthetic media can help make the accessibility tools smarter, affordable and personalizable, which can help people augment their agency and gain independence.

 

  1. Education

 AI-Generated synthetic media can bring historical figures back to life for a more engaging and interactive classroom. This will have more impact, engagement, and will be a better learning tool.

  1. Arts
  • AI-Generated synthetic media can bring unprecedented opportunities in the entertainment business that currently use high-end CGI, VFX, and SFX technologies to create artificial but believable worlds for compelling storytelling.
  • Samsung’s AI lab in Moscow brought Mona Lisa to life by using Deepfake technology.
  1. Autonomy & Expression

 Synthetic media can help human rights activists and journalists to remain anonymous in dictatorial and oppressive regimes. Deepfake can be used to anonymize voice and faces to protect their privacy

 

NEGATIVE USE OF DEEPFAKE :

  • Such technologies can give people a voice, purpose, and ability to make an impact at scale and with speed. But as with any new innovative technology, it can be weaponised to inflict harm.
  • Overriding Consent: Deepfake technologies make it possible to fabricate media — swap faces, lip-syncing, and puppeteer — mostly without consent and bring threat to psychology, security, political stability, and business disruption
  • Damage reputations: Deepfakes can depict a person indulging in antisocial behaviours and saying vile things. These can have severe implications on their reputation, sabotaging their professional and personal life. Even if the victim could debunk the fake via an alibi or otherwise, it may come too late to remedy the initial harm.
  • Targeting Women: The very first use case of malicious use of a deepfake was seen in pornography, inflicting emotional, reputational, and in some cases, violence towards the individual.
  • Exploitation: Malicious actors can take advantage of unwitting individuals to defraud them for financial gains using audio and video deepfakes. Deepfakes can be deployed to extract money, confidential information, or exact favours from individuals.
  • Social Harm: Deepfakes can cause short- and long-term social harm and accelerate the already declining trust in news media. Such an erosion can contribute to a culture of factual relativism
  • Creation of Echo Chambers in Social Media: Falsity is profitable, and goes viral more than the truth on social platforms. Combined with distrust, the existing biases and political disagreement can help create echo chambers and filter bubbles, creating discord in society.
  • Undermining Democracy: False information about institutions, public policy, and politicians powered by a deepfake can be exploited to spin the story and manipulate belief. This can aid in altering the democratic discourse and undermine trust in institutions.
  • Misused as tool of authoritarianism: Deepfakes can become a very effective tool to sow the seeds of polarisation, amplifying division in society, and suppressing dissent.
  • Liar’s dividend – an undesirable truth is dismissed as deepfake or fake news. It can also help public figures hide their immoral acts in the veil of deepfakes and fake news, calling their actual harmful actions false.

 

SOLUTION OR WAY FORWARD ?

  • To defend the truth and secure freedom of expression, we need a multi-stakeholder and multi-modal approach.
  • Regulation & Collaboration with Civil Society: Meaningful regulations with a collaborative discussion with the technology industry, civil society, and policymakers can facilitate disincentivising the creation and distribution of malicious deepfakes.
  • New Technologies: There is also need easy-to-use and accessible technology solutions to detect deepfakes, authenticate media, and amplify authoritative sources.
  • Media literacy for consumers and journalists is the most effective tool to combat disinformation and deepfakes. As consumers of media, we must have the ability to decipher, understand, translate, and use the information we encounter
  • Even a short intervention with media understanding, learning the motivations and context, can lessen the damage. Improving media literacy is a precursor to addressing the challenges presented by deepfakes.

 Additional information:

 

SHALLOWFAKES :

  • Shallowfakes are videos that are either presented out of context or are doctored with simple editing tools. They are crude but still impactful.

 

PHISHING :

  The email or text message carrying a link appears to come from a trusted source like a bank.

  The link takes the user to a fake website and once details like login name and passwords are entered, the login credentials reach the hacker.

 

CATFISH ACCOUNT :

  It refers to the practice of setting up fictitious online profiles, generally, for luring another person into a fraudulent romantic relationship.

 CONCLUSION :

  • Collaborative actions and collective techniques across legislative regulations, platform policies, technology intervention, and media literacy can provide effective and ethical countermeasures to mitigate the threat of malicious deepfakes

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