Bonds, big money and an imperfect democracy

Question : Discuss the implications of the electoral bonds scheme on Indian democracy, considering its recent declaration as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.


Electoral Bonds Scheme

  • Objective: To curb the financing of elections with black money.
  • Status: Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of India.
  • Potential Transformation: Could have revolutionized Indian politics for the better.

Gap between Professed and Actual

  • Representation Issue: Elected leaders prioritize the interests of financiers over constituents.
  • Undermining Democracy: Discrepancy between professed and actual actions erodes democratic principles.
  • Disparity in Benefits: Majority sees little benefit from policies while vested interests gain.

Policy Design and Impact

  • Packaging of Policies: Policies often appear to be in the national interest but serve elite interests.
  • Market-driven Services: Poverty, unemployment, ill health, and education left to market forces, widening disparities.
  • Inadequate Public Services: Marginalized sections suffer due to insufficient public services.

Cronyism Uncovered

  • Electoral Bonds: Revealed as a fraction of total political funding, exposing the nature of Indian politics.
  • Motives for Funding: Businesses seek favors, escape prosecution, and invest for future benefits.
  • Impact Categories: Favors from policymakers, avoidance of prosecution, and investment for future gains.

Way Forward

  • Ideal Democracy: In a well-functioning democracy, election funding wouldn’t rely on secrecy or big finances.
  • Highlighting Weakness: Electoral bonds scheme underscores the declining strength of Indian democracy.
  • Requirement Assessment: The scheme may not have been necessary in an ideal democratic setup.



 Human-Dog Relationship: Conflict and Coexistence

Question: Examine the dynamics of the human-dog relationship, encompassing both conflict and coexistence.

Headline grabbing incidents of dog bites only represent a fraction of all interactions.

Reasons for Intolerance Towards Street Dogs:

  • Resident Welfare Associations (RWAs):Often blame dogs for problems, creating conflict.
  • Animal Instincts:Dogs act aggressively when scared or threatened (relocation, abuse).
  • Failed Implementation of Rules:2001 ABC Rules lacked proper enforcement, leading to dog population growth.
  • Inefficient Practices:Lack of budget, infrastructure, transparency, and proper monitoring hinder progress.
  • Fascination with Foreign Breeds:Leads to neglect and mistreatment of native breeds. Pet shops exploit this trend.

Animal Birth Control (ABC) Rules, 2023:

  • Aims to control stray dog population humanely through catch-neuter-vaccinate-release (CNVR) programs.
  • Requires local bodies to conduct sterilization and immunization of strays.
  • Promotes joint ABC and anti-rabies programs.
  • Provides guidelines for resolving conflicts without relocation.

Reducing Human-Dog Conflict:

  • Effective ABC program implementationby municipalities as per the 2023 Rules.
  • Encourage adoption of Indian dogs:Widespread adoption can significantly reduce strays.
  • Promote native dog breeds:They have better immunity and make great pets.
  • Protect community dog caregivers:Recognized by new ABC Rules to encourage street dog care.
  • Avoid culling and eradication:Creates ecological imbalances and is ineffective.

Long-Term Solutions:

  • Research:Identify causes of conflict to develop targeted interventions.
  • Improved post-exposure treatment:Ensure easy access to rabies treatment for people.
  • Maintain socialized street dog populations:Reduces conflict through familiarization.


Focus on understanding the complexities of human-dog conflict and develop solutions that foster peaceful coexistence, rather than seeking quick fixes.


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