9/3/2024 : Micro Notes: The Hindu Editorial Summary

How does gender equality intersect with sustainable development goals, particularly in the context of energy access and consumption?


What additional measures can be taken to further promote gender equality in the energy sector and ensure women’s meaningful participation in decision-making processes?

Topic : Gender Equality and Sustainable Development


  • Women play a key role in energy but face barriers limiting their participation.

Why Gender Equality Matters

  • SDG achievement depends on gender equality.
  • Gender equality is crucial for sustainable development.
  • Women’s participation is essential in energy access, production, and consumption.

Gender Disparity in Energy

  • Women lack access to modern energy disproportionately.
  • They rely on harmful alternatives due to lack of clean energy.
  • Women are underrepresented in the energy sector (22% vs 48% overall workforce).

Consequences of Gender Gap

  • Increased air pollution and health risks (esp. women & children).
  • Hinders economic growth and environmental sustainability.

Bridging the Gender Gap

  • Change perception of women’s role in energy.
  • Mainstream gender equality in energy policies.
  • Governments, NGOs, and philanthropists must take action.


  • Women at the Forefront & Energy Transitions Innovation Challenge programs.
  • Distributed Renewable Energy for faster energy access.
  • Solar Mamas program training women as solar engineers.


  • Women are key agents of change in the energy sector.
  • The dialogue has shifted to acknowledge women’s power in energy.


Ques: What are the characteristics of informal employment in India, and why does it dominate the country’s labor force?


Ques: How might stagnant earnings among the poorer sections of the population impact consumer expenditure and the overall economy, particularly in the context of declining investment to GDP ratio?


  • India is in its demographic dividend period (high working-age population).
  • The economy isn’t fully utilizing this advantage.

The Problem: Informal Employment

  • 90% of India’s workforce is in informal jobs:
    • Low wages
    • No job security
    • No benefits
    • Limited social protection
  • Examples: casual laborers, some salaried workers, self-employed

Misleading Improvements

  • Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) and unemployment rate appear to be improving.
  • Increase driven by women in rural areas entering informal work (unpaid family work).


  • Low productivity due to a workforce in low-quality jobs.
  • Weakens economic growth:
    • Low wages reduce consumer spending.
    • Declining investment hurts growth further (vicious cycle).


  • India needs to shift its workforce from informal to formal jobs to truly benefit from the demographic dividend.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *