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World Migration Report 2024 (IOM)

GS-1 Mains : World Geography

Revision Notes

Question : Evaluate the challenges faced by migrants, particularly in terms of legal, economic, and social aspects. How do these challenges impact their well-being and integration into host societies? Suggest measures to address these challenges effectively.

International Remittances on the Rise

  • Since 2000, remittances soared by 650% (USD 128 billion to USD 831 billion in 2022).
  • Remittances surpass foreign direct investment for boosting developing nations’ GDP.

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

  • Founded in 1951, IOM is the leading intergovernmental organization promoting humane and orderly migration within the UN System.
  • It has 175 member states and works in 171 countries.
  • IOM collaborates with governments, NGOs, and others to improve the well-being of migrants, especially vulnerable ones.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.

Top Remittance Recipient Countries (2022)

  1. India (USD 111 billion)
  2. Mexico
  3. China
  4. Philippines
  5. France
  • India: Largest recipient in 2010, 2015, 2020, and 2022.
  • Pakistan (6th) and Bangladesh (8th) are also major recipients.

Southern Asia: A Remittance Hub

  • India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh rank among the top 10 recipients globally.

Reasons for Migration

  • Political/economic instability, climate change, disasters.
  • 117 million displaced globally in 2022 (71.2 million internally displaced).
  • Asylum seekers up 30% since 2020.

Migrant Concentration in GCC States

  • UAE (88%), Kuwait (73%), Qatar (77%) – migrants as % of population.
  • Work in construction, hospitality, security, domestic work, retail.

Mobile Students

  • Most come from Asia (e.g., China).
  • US is the top destination (followed by UK, Australia, Germany, Canada).


  • Migrant exploitation, debt, xenophobia, workplace abuses.
  • Pandemic’s harsh impact on Indian migrant workers (job loss, wage theft).

Global Displacement Factors

  • Conflict and war (e.g., Ukraine, Syria, Afghanistan).
  • Human rights violations (persecution based on ethnicity, religion, etc.).
  • Natural disasters (floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts) – climate change is worsening these.
  • Economic hardship (poverty, lack of jobs).
  • Ethnic/religious conflict and discrimination.

Challenges Faced by Migrants

  • Legal & Administrative Hurdles: Obtaining visas, residency permits, or asylum status can be difficult due to complex procedures.
  • Language & Cultural Barriers: Communication issues hinder access to services, employment, and community integration.
  • Economic Challenges: Finding stable work is hard, especially without formal education, job skills, or legal work authorization.
  • Social Exclusion & Discrimination: Migrants face prejudice and exclusion based on nationality, ethnicity, religion, or immigration status.
  • Mental Health Issues: Displacement, separation from family, violence, and uncertainty can lead to psychological distress and mental health problems.
  • Exploitation: Migrants, particularly undocumented ones, are vulnerable to exploitation, trafficking, and abuse by smugglers, traffickers, employers, or criminal networks.
  • Housing & Shelter: Finding affordable and safe housing is difficult, especially in urban areas with housing shortages and high rents. Many migrants live in overcrowded or substandard conditions, at risk of homelessness.
  • Lack of Legal Protection: Migrants, especially asylum seekers and refugees, face human rights violations like detention, deportation, arbitrary arrest, or denial of due process. They often lack legal representation to defend their rights.

Policy Suggestions for Refugees and Migrants:

  • Social Integration: Promote policies and programs that help refugees and migrants integrate into society, fostering participation and reducing discrimination.
  • Mental Health: Ensure migrant policies address the social factors impacting mental health. Prioritize basic needs like food, shelter, safety, and education/employment opportunities.
  • Healthcare Workforce: Strengthen the capacity of healthcare workers to assess and treat mental health issues among refugees and migrants with diverse backgrounds.
  • Human Rights: Safeguard the human rights of all refugees and migrants, regardless of legal status. Strengthen national and international policies and criminal justice measures to protect migrants from discrimination and violence.


Source : https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/india-received-111-billion-in-remittances-in-2022-world-migration-report-2024/article68153339.ece

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