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Topic : Affordable Housing Schemes in India (PMAY)

GS-2 Mains : Governance

Revision Notes

Question : Discuss the evolution of affordable housing schemes in India, from earlier initiatives like the Indira Awas Yojana to the current Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY). Evaluate the components and implementation status of PMAY-Urban and PMAY-Gramin, highlighting challenges and successes.

Why in News ?

  • India’s urban housing shortage rose significantly (ICRIER).

Housing Scenario in India:

  • Millions live in slums or lack proper housing.
  • Government defines affordable housing as ≤ 60 sq.m for ≤ ₹45 lakh.

Right to Housing:

  • Upheld by Supreme Court as part of Article 21 (Right to Life).

History of Housing Schemes:

  • Indira Awas Yojana (1985) focused on rural housing.
  • JNNURM (2005) and Rajiv Awas Yojana (2008) targeted urban housing.
  • Housing for All (2015-22) launched PMAY-G (rural) and PMAY-U (urban).

PMAY-U (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban):

  • Launched by MoHUA in 2015.
  • Aims to provide pucca houses to EWS/LIG & slum dwellers.
  • Components:
    • In-situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR)
    • Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS)
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP)
    • Beneficiary-led Individual House Construction/Enhancement (BLC)
  • Extended till Dec 2024 (except CLSS).

Status of PMAY-U:

  • 83% of planned houses not for urban landless poor.
  • Slum rehab scheme sanctioned only 2.96 lakh homes.

PMAY-G (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin):

  • Implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
  • Aims to construct 2.95 crore pucca houses in rural areas.
  • Provides financial assistance (₹1.2-1.3 lakh) to beneficiaries.

Success of PMAY-G:

  • Over 2.94 crore houses sanctioned.
  • Over 2.55 crore houses completed (as of Feb 1, 2024).

Challenges of PMAY Implementation

  • Land Acquisition:Affordable land, especially in urban areas, is difficult to acquire.
  • Beneficiary Identification:Verifying eligible applicants and raising awareness about PMAY is complex.
  • Project Delays:Funding issues, bureaucracy, and red tape cause delays.
    • PMAY-U aimed for 1.18 crore houses by Dec 2024, but only achieved 80 lakh (67%) by March 2024.

Way Forward:

  • Monitor Progress:Regularly assess performance to identify issues and make corrections.
  • Sustainability:Integrate environment-friendly practices into housing projects.
  • Equity:Ensure fair distribution with focus on marginalized communities.

Example: Andhra Pradesh’s Navaratnalu-Pedalandariki Illu has built 21.76 lakh houses (outlay: ₹56,700 crore).

Source : https://epaper.thehindu.com/ccidist-ws/th/th_delhi/issues/82998/OPS/G23CPRI3J.1+GLUCPTKP1.1.html

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