GS 1


  1. same-sex couples’ pleas: Delhi HC notice to Centre

The issue in news

The Delhi High Court has asked the Centre to respond to two separate petitions by same-sex couples seeking to declare that the Special Marriage Act (SMA) and the Foreign Marriage Act (FMA) ought to apply to all couples regardless of their gender identity and sexual orientation.

Main points

  • The bench issued notice to the Centre and the Delhi government seeking their stand on the plea by two women seeking to get married under the SMA.
  • They have challenged the provisions of the statute to the extent it does not provide for same-sex marriages.
  • The bench added that both the Special Marriage Act (SMA) and the Foreign Marriage Act (FMA) do not define marriage and everyone interprets what a marriage is according to the customary laws.
  • Same-sex marriages are not legally recognised in India.
  • In June 2020, the Uttarakhand High Court acknowledged that while same-sex marriage may not be legal, cohabitation and live-in relationships are protected by the law.


GS 2

  1. School education reform project : Cabinet’s approval

The issue in news

The Union Cabinet has approved the Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States (STARS) project.

Main points

  • The STARS project is partially funded by the World Bank.
  • It will have a total project cost of 5,718 crore, with the World Bank’s support amounting to about 3,700 crore ($500 million).
  • It aims to carry out a reform agenda in the governance of school education, and improve data and assessment systems at the national level, as well as teaching and learning outcomes in six States, especially for early childhood and vocational education.
  • The project includes an emergency response component to help the government respond to disaster situations which lead to school closures and loss of learning.
  • At the State level, the project seeks to improve education outcomes and school-to-work transition strategies for better labour market outcomes in Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala and Odisha.


  • A major component of the project is the establishment of PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) as a National Assessment Centre.
  • PARAKH is included in the National Education Policy 2020.
  • It will be an autonomous institution under the Union Education Ministry.
  • PARAKH will set norms for student assessment and evaluation for all school boards across the country, most of which currently follow norms set by State governments.


GS 3

Category: SECURITY

  1. Nagaland govt. calls meeting on peace talks

The issue in news

The Nagaland government has called all civil society groups for a consultative meet in Kohima to discuss the ongoing peace talks and the political issue.

Main points

  • A similar project to be funded by the Asian Development Bank will cover Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Assam and every State will partner with one other State to share best practices.

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