GS 1


  1. Drop in women workers

The issue in news

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has noted a drop in women’s participation in the workforce.

Main points

  • According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey reports released by the National Statistical Office, women’s participation in the workforce “fell to its lowest points since independence in the year 2017-18.
  • The most major decline was seen since 2004, from 29.4% to 17.5% in 2017-18.
  • The decline has marginally increased to 18.6% in the year 2018-19.



  • NHRC would issue guidelines to the government to improve the participation of women in the workforce.
  • The expert group met to discuss the reasons for the low participation of women in the workforce.


Suggestions to improve participation in the workforce:

  • Investments must be encouraged in the care economy while having a regulatory mechanism.
  • While there already exists a law against sexual harassment, much more needs to be done in terms of ensuring its implementation and providing better working conditions.
  • Gender sensitivity must be ensured at workplaces.
  • Equal sharing of household work will help in increasing the participation of women in the workforce.
  • It was suggested that an urban employment guarantee scheme be started along the lines of the MGNREGA with a reservation for women.
  • There is a need for skilling and encouraging women to take up unconventional jobs like drivers and electricians.


GS 2


  1. Study highlights drawbacks of online education

The issue in news

A study was conducted by the Azim Premji University on the efficacy and accessibility of e-learning.


  • The study titled “Myths of Online Education” was undertaken in five States across 26 districts and covered 1,522 schools.
  • It examined the experience of children and teachers with online education.


Key Findings:

  • The study found that more than 60% of the respondents who are enrolled in government schools could not access online education. Among the reasons for students not being able to access classes were:
  • Non-availability or the inadequate number of smartphones for dedicated use or sharing.
  • Difficulty in using apps for online learning.
  • 90% of the teachers who work with children with disabilities found their students unable to participate online.
  • Almost 90% of parents of government school students surveyed were willing to send their children back to school.
  • Almost 70% of the parents surveyed were of the opinion that online classes were not effective and did not help in their child’s learnings.
  • Nearly 50% of the teachers reported that children were unable to complete assignments shared during the online classes, which had led to serious gaps in learning.
  • Teachers also expressed frustration with online classes stating that a meaningful assessment of children’s learning was not possible.



  1. Lack of consent won’t vitiate CBI probe: SC

The issue in news

The Supreme Court has said that the cognisance and trial in a CBI case against public servants “cannot be set aside unless the illegality in the investigation can be shown to have brought about miscarriage of justice”.

Main points

  • The Supreme Court has held that, once a court takes cognisance of a corruption case investigated by the CBI, it cannot be set aside for lack of the State government’s prior consent for the probe against some of the accused, unless it is shown that it has resulted in prejudice.
  • Thus, if the State had given a general consent to CBI investigation in a corruption case and cognisance has been taken by the court, the case cannot be set aside unless the public servants plead that prejudice has been caused to them on account of non-obtaining of prior consent under Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act.



  1. Confront sponsors of terror, says Modi

The issue in news

The 12th BRICS summit was hosted virtually by the Russian President. Addressing the 12th BRICS summit, the Prime Minister of India asserted that terrorism is the biggest problem facing the world and emphasised the need to confront the countries that supported and sponsored terror



  • PM Modi acknowledged the Russian support for the BRICS counter-terrorism strategy.
  • He suggested that the National Security Advisers of all BRICS countries meet and discuss a counter-terrorism action plan.
  • He also raised the issue of “credibility and effectiveness” of the institutions that were necessary for global governance.


Economic cooperation:

  • Referring to the post-COVID-19 economic hardships of the world, he highlighted the importance of BRICS in that scenario.
  • The Prime Minister introduced “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” to the BRICS members.


Vaccine cooperation:

  • The Prime Minister addressed the issue of cooperation among the BRICS countries on the production of vaccines for COVID-19.
  • India is in talks with Russia for the field trial of Sputnik V that is expected to soon begin in Uttar Pradesh.
  • India has led regional collaboration in South Asia for ensuring vaccine access to countries such as Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.


GS 3


  1. Bru refugees demand immediate implementation of settlement pact

The issue in news

Leaders of the Mizoram Bru refugees have demanded the commencement of their permanent rehabilitation in Tripura in the light of the quadripartite agreement signed in New Delhi in January 2020.


Bru-Reang Refugee Crisis


Bru Tribe:

  • Bru (or Reang) tribals inhabit parts of Northeastern states of Assam, Mizoram and Tripura.
  • In Mizoram, they are largely restricted to Mamit and Kolasib.


  • In 1995, following a clash between Mizos and Brus, the Young Mizo Association and Mizo Students’ Association demanded that Brus be removed from the state’s electoral rolls, contending that the tribe was not indigenous to Mizoram.
  • This led to an armed movement led by the militant outfit Bru National Liberation Front (BNLF), and a political one by the Bru National Union (BNU).
  • Many Bru villages were burnt down and scores allegedly raped and killed, which led to the displacement of 40,000 Bru people.
  • A large number of Bru families fled to North Tripura.
  • The first phase of repatriation started in November 2010, when 1,622 Bru families with 8,573 members were resettled in Mizoram.
  • The process was stalled in 2011, 2012 and 2015 amid protests by Mizo NGOs.
  • Brus settled in Tripura also expressed fears for their security in Mizoram


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