1. Bodoland Statehood Movement

The issue in news

Recently, ahead of the elections to the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC),  A new organisation (All India Bodo People’s National League for Bodoland Statehood) announced the revival of the Bodoland statehood movement.

Main points

Bodoland Movement

  • The Bodoland statehood movement has its roots in the 1967 Udayachal stir seeking self-rule for the areas dominated by the Bodo community.
  • A stronger statehood movement was revived in 1987 with the slogan of ‘Divide Assam 50:50’and it ran parallel with an armed uprising by extremists.
  • The Bodos, under the leadership of All Bodo Students‟ Union (ABSU) launched a movement for a separate homeland namely “Bodoland‟.
  • A section of Bodo militant outfits – National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB)and Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) have raised secessionist demands and the creation of sovereign state of Bodoland.
  • This had led to the subversive activities by militant organizations of the Bodosinvolving the fratricidal killings, bomb blasts, kidnapping, rail blockades and activities of sabotage affecting the neighbouring states like Bhutan, Bangladesh, besides, the entire country.
  • The Bodoland movement was put under suspension after signing BTR accord.



Background of the issue


  • The  demand for a separate State for the Bodos, was said to have ended with the signing of the third peace accord on January 27for transforming the BTC into the Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) with additional powers.
  • But the All India Bodo People’s National League for Bodoland Statehood vowed to rekindle the statehood movement. The league was formed on October 15.
  • The members of this league panned the BTR accord, which they said would spell disaster for the Bodo community.
  • the new accord has been a betrayal of the Bodo people (acc. to the statement of the members) as it prescribes a reduction of the area currently under the BTC.
  • The accord has a provision for excluding from the BTR villages with more than 50% non-Bodosand including villages with more than 50% Bodo people left out of the BTC map after the 2003 accord.


First Bodo Accord

  • The movement was put out temporarily with the signing of the first Bodo Accord in February 1993 between the government and moderate leaders of the movement, including those of the All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU).
  • This resulted in the creation of the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC).
  • The extremist National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB), which split into four factions later on, rejected this “trivial” accord.
  • The discontent bred another outfit, the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT),which rivalled the NDFB.


2nd and 3rd Bodo Accord

  • The Centre signed the second Bodo peace accord with the BLT in February 2003elevating the BAC to the BTC.
  • The outfit was disbanded and most of its leaders formed the Bodoland People’s Frontthat ruled the BTC for several terms until the council was dissolved on April 27.
  • The Third Bodo accord signed on January 27 among the Centre, the Assam government and Bodo organisations, including leaders of all the NDFB factions and the ABSU, envisaged to upgrade the BTC to the BTR.
  • The Bodo signatories had then said that the accord negated the need for another statehood movement




  1. Global Hunger Index 2020

The issue in news

Recently, among 107 countries India was ranked at 94 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2020.

Main points

Global Hunger Index

  • Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at global, regional, and national levels
  • The annual report is jointly published by Concern Worldwide and
  • GHI scores are calculated using a three-step process that draws on available data from various sources to capture the multidimensional nature of hunger
  • First, for each country, values are determined for four indicators:
  • Undernourishment, Child Wasting, Child Stunting, Child Mortality
  • Second, each of the four component indicators is given a standardized score on a 100-point scale based on the highest observed level for the indicator on a global scale in recent decades.
  • Third, standardized scores are aggregated to calculate the GHI score for each country, with each of the three dimensions (inadequate food supply; child mortality; and child undernutrition, which is composed equally of child stunting and child wasting) given equal weight (using the formula for calculating GHI scores)


Global Scenario:

  • Worldwide Hunger stands at a GHI score of 18.2 (moderate level), down from a 2000 GHI score of 28.2 (serious).
  • SDG 2 Progress: The world is not on track to achieve the second Sustainable Development Goal – known as Zero Hunger for short – by 2030.

Indian Scenario:

  • India stands on the level of hunger that is “serious”. It ranks 94 out of 107 countries in the Index. In 2019, India’s rank was 102 out of 117 countries.
  • India features behind Nepal (73), Pakistan (88), Bangladesh (75), Indonesia (70) among others.

Indicators in Indian context:

  • Undernourishment: 14% of India’s population is undernourished (2017- 19). It was 16.3% during 2011-13.
  • Child Wasting: 3% (2015-19), it was 15.1% in 2010-14.
  • Child Stunting: 7%, it has improved significantly, from 54% in 2000 to less than 35% now.
  • Child Mortality: 7%, it was 5.2% in 2012. 2/25


Initiatives by India

  • POSHAN Abhiyaan
  • Eat Right India Movement
  • Food Fortification
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
  • Mission Indradhanush
  • National Food Security Act, 2013



Way forward

  • Governments, private actors, and NGOs should carefully coordinate their responses to overlapping food and health crises and work with community organizations to make sure interventions are culturally acceptable, reach the most vulnerable, and preserve local ecosystems.
  • Food should be priced not only by its weight or volume but also by its nutrient density, its freedom from contamination, and its contribution to ecosystem services and social justice.
  • Governments should expand access to maternal and child health care, as well as education on healthy diets and child feeding practices.


  1. Report on Food Consumption: WWF

The issue in news

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) recently  published the report “Bending the Curve:

The Restorative Power of Planet-Based Diets”, giving a detailed analysis of food consumption patterns in 147 countries and six regions and the national dietary guidelines (NDGs) across 75 countries.

Main points

  • The patterns of Food consumption vary, rich countries have a Different consumption patterns than poor countries.
  • For each country and region, the impacts of diets were assessed on various environmental and health indicators.


Major Concerns:

  • Unhealthy diets, under-consumption as well as over-consumption leads to Premature deaths in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Due to the increase in biodiversity loss caused by a shift to a healthier and planet friendly diet and extensively increased consumption India needs to be extra careful in figuring out the changes in the diet.
  • Consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy needs to be increased.


Way forward

The need of the hour is to strike balance in how countries consume their food as well as a shift to a plant-based diet which is the need of the hour. However, this dietary shift will impact different countries differently.



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