MCQs : Based on Current Affairs : Topic- Economy Part-8 (Current affairs MCQ for UPSC / IAS Exam) (Arora IAS)

Topic- Health

May 2020 : MCQ Based on Current Affairs

 

1. Consider the following statements about BCG Vaccine:

  1. The vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis.
  2. The vaccine given to persons at conformation of TB.
  3. India having a universal BCG policy since the year 1978.

Which of the given statements is/are not correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 and 3

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 3 only

 

2. Consider the following statements about African Swine Fever:

  1. It is ahighly contagious and fatal animal disease.
  2. It can infect and leads to an acute form of hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs.
  3. It was first detected in Africa in the 1960s.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 3 only

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

 

 

3. Consider the following statements about Hog Cholera:

  1. It is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine.
  2. The disease does not harm humans
  3. It is one of the biggest diseases affecting pigs in India.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 3

      (b) 2 and 3

      (c) 3 only

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

 

 

 

4. Consider the following statements about Sanjivani App:

  1. It has been jointly developed by Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Health.
  2. It has been launched to help generate data on acceptance and usage of AYUSH advocacies and measures among the population.

Which of the given statements is/are not correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 2

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

 

5. Consider the following statements:

  1. ELISA is to detect antibodies that the body develops in response to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus.
  2. First time India has developed an indigenous ELISA test for coronavirus.

Which of the given statements are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 1 only

      (c) 2 only

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

 

6. Consider the following statements about ELISA:

  1. ELISA is routinely used for detecting HIV and colera infection.
  2. It detects antibodies, even people who have remained symptom free (asymptomatic) during the entire course of the infection will test positive.
  3. It can only help in knowing if the person has been previously infected by coronavirus

Which of the given statements are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 2 and 3

 

7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC) has recommended to ban on streptomycin and tetracycline.
  2. Streptomycin has important use for previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 2

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

 

8. Consider the following statements about SwasthVayu:

  1. The system has been certified for safety and performance by NABL accredited agencies with NITI Aayog and Health Ministry.
  2. The system has some advantages but as it is very expensive resulted in big disadvantage.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 1 only

      (c) 2 only

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

 

9. ELISA is an acronym of which of the following :

      (a) The enzyme-level  immunosorbent assay

      (b) The enzyme-linked immunity assay

      (c) The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

      (d) The enzyme-linked immunosorbent area

 

 

10. Consider the following statements about Chitra GeneLAMP-N:

  1. It is a diagnostic test kit that can confirm COVID-19 in 2 hours.
  2. It is one of the very expensive kit to tackle the virus.
  3. It is developed by IIMS.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 3 only

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Answers

 

1. Consider the following statements about BCG Vaccine:

  1. The vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis.
  2. The vaccine given to persons at conformation of TB.
  3. India having a universal BCG policy since the year 1978.

Which of the given statements is/are not correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 and 3

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 3 only

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is correct: BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis
  2. Statement 2 is incorrect: The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB
  3. Statement 3 is incorrect: India having a universal BCG policy in place since the year 1968

For More Information Read the following

BCG Vaccine

  • World Health Organisation has highlight a few critical issues over the use of BCG vaccine for COVID-19. They underscore the importance of randomised controlled trials of the vaccine to understand its safety and efficacy before using it on healthcare workers.

What is BCG vaccine?

  • BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis (TB).
  • The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB.
  • It is also used to treat bladder tumours or bladder cancer.
  • India having a universal BCG policy in place since the year 1968 and relatively fewer deaths as a proportion of confirmed coronavirus infections.

Relationship with COVID-19

  • The BCG vaccine contains a live but weakened strain of tuberculosis bacteria that provokes the body to develop antibodies to attack TB bacteria.
  • This is called an adaptive immune response, because the body develops a defence against a specific disease-causing microorganism, or pathogen, after encountering it.
  • Most vaccines create an adaptive immune response to a single pathogen.

 

2. Consider the following statements about African Swine Fever:

  1. It is ahighly contagious and fatal animal disease.
  2. It can infect and leads to an acute form of hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs.
  3. It was first detected in Africa in the 1960s.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 3 only

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is correct: It is ahighly contagious and fatal animal disease 
  2. Statement 2 is correct: It is ahighly contagious and fatal animal disease that infects and leads to an acute form of hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs.
  3. Statement 3 is incorrect: It was first detected in Africa in the 1920s.

For More Information Read the following

 

African Swine Fever

  • Assam Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Minister has said that the Centre has advised the State Government to go for the culling of pigs affected by the African Swine Fever (ASF).

About African Swine Fever

  • It is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease that infects and leads to an acute form of hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs.
  • It was first detected in Africa in the 1920s.
  • The mortality is close to 100% and since the fever has no cure, the only way to stop its spread is by culling the animals.
  • ASF is not a threat to human beings since it only spreads from animals to other animals.
  • ASF is a disease listed in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and thus, reported to the OIE.

About World Organisation for Animal Health

  • It is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for improving animal health worldwide.
  • In 2018, it had a total of 182 member countries (India is one of them).
  • OIE standards are recognised by the World Trade Organisation as reference international sanitary rules.
  • It is headquartered in Paris, France.

 

3. Consider the following statements about Hog Cholera:

  1. It is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine.
  2. The disease does not harm humans
  3. It is one of the biggest diseases affecting pigs in India.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 3

      (b) 2 and 3

      (c) 3 only

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is correct: It is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine.
  2. Statement 2 is correct: The disease does not harm humans
  3. Statement 3 is correct: It is one of the biggest diseases affecting pigs in India

For More Information Read the following

Pigs die of suspected hog cholera in Meghalaya

  • Suspected hog cholera has killed at least a dozen pigs across two districts of Meghalaya. This coincided with the death of more than 2,900 pigs in Assam due to African Swine Fever (AFS), a first in the Indian subcontinent.

Hog Cholera:

  • Classical swine fever (CSF), otherwise known as hog cholera (HC) or just swine fever, is a specific viral disease of pigs.
  • It is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine. It affects no other species.
  • It happens due to the viruses that bring viral diarrhoea in pigs and ailments in sheep.
  • The disease does not harm humans.

Note:

  • Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is one of the biggest diseases affecting pigs in India.
  • It causes a loss of about 400 crores of rupees per year in India.
  • This had led to a decrease in the population of pigs in 2019.
  • The Indian Institute of Veterinary Research (IVRI) of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has developed a new vaccine to control classical swine fever.
  • However, currently, only 1.2 million doses are being produced. The reason behind its less production is that only 50 doses can be prepared from the spleen of a rabbit.

 

4. Consider the following statements about Sanjivani App:

  1. It has been jointly developed by Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Health.
  2. It has been launched to help generate data on acceptance and usage of AYUSH advocacies and measures among the population.

Which of the given statements is/are not correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 2

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is incorrect: It has been developed by Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  2. Statement 2 is correct: It has been launched to help generate data on acceptance and usage of AYUSH advocacies and measures among the population

 

For More Information Read the following

Sanjivani App

  • Union Health and Family Welfare Minister has launched the ‘AYUSH Sanjivani App’ to harness the technology for COVID-19 response.

About AYUSH Sanjivani App

  • It has been developed by Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to reach out to a target of 50 lakh people.
  • It has been launched to help generate data on acceptance and usage of AYUSH advocacies and measures among the population and its impact on prevention of COVID19.
  • It will help in promoting AYUSH knowledge for the larger good of the global community.

 

5. Consider the following statements:

  1. ELISA is to detect antibodies that the body develops in response to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus.
  2. First time India has developed an indigenous ELISA test for coronavirus.

Which of the given statements are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 1 only

      (c) 2 only

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is correct: ELISA is to detect antibodies that the body develops in response to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus.
  2. Statement 2 is correct: the first time India has developed an indigenous ELISA test for coronavirus

For More Information Read the following

NIV develops test to detect antibodies

  • The National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, has developed a test kit for COVID-19.

More Information

  • The National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, has developed an immunological assay — enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) — to detect antibodies that the body develops in response to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus.
    • ELISA is routinely used for detecting HIV infection.
  • NIV had transferred the technology to Zydus Cadila for mass-scale production subsequent to the Drug Controller General granting commercial production and marketing permission to Zydus Cadila.

Significance:

Checking for community transmission:

  • Since the ELISA test is based on detection of antibodies, it helps detect cases in which the infected person has remained symptom-free (asymptomatic) during the entire course of the infection. It will also help ascertain if the person was previously infected, which is not possible with the RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) test.
  • The newly developed kit can test 90 samples together in a single run of 2.5 hours enabling faster testing.
  • The ELISA test will be used to screen 30,000 samples from 75 hotspot districts to understand the extent of the spread of the virus in the community. This would help ascertain whether there is community transmission in India.

Increase availability of test kits:

  • This is the first time India has developed an indigenous ELISA test for coronavirus. While ELISA tests for coronavirus are already available in other countries, procuring them in large numbers may be a challenge, particularly during a pandemic. With the indigenous ELISA test kit, availability will be a non-issue.

Better sensitivity:

  • The ELISA test developed by NIV gains significance as the rapid antibody tests imported from China were found to be unreliable.
  • The kit has reported high sensitivity and accuracy.

 

6. Consider the following statements about ELISA:

  1. ELISA is routinely used for detecting HIV and colera infection.
  2. It detects antibodies, even people who have remained symptom free (asymptomatic) during the entire course of the infection will test positive.
  3. It can only help in knowing if the person has been previously infected by coronavirus

Which of the given statements are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is incorrect: ELISA is routinely used for detecting HIV infection.
  2. Statement 2 is correct: it detects antibodies, even people who have remained symptom free (asymptomatic) during the entire course of the infection will test positive.
  3. Statement 3 is correct: it can only help in knowing if the person has been previously infected by coronavirus

For More Information Read the following

ELISA

  • The National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, has developed an immunological assay – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) – to detect antibodies that the body develops in response to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus.

What is ELISA?

  • The test will detect antibodies in blood samples. ELISA is routinely used for detecting HIV infection.
  • While ELISA tests for coronavirus are already available in other countries, procuring them in large numbers may be a challenge, particularly during a pandemic. In contrast, availability will be a non-issue when a locally developed test is manufactured in India.
  • The ELISA test will be used to screen 30,000 samples from 75 hotspot districts to understand the extent of spread of the virus in the community.
  • Since the ELISA test is based on detection of antibodies, it can only help in knowing if the person has been previously infected by coronavirus.

Significance

  • Since it detects antibodies, even people who have remained symptom free (asymptomatic) during the entire course of the infection will test positive.
  • While the RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) test, which detects the RNA of the coronavirus, enables detection of current infection, it will not be useful if the testing is carried out days after the infection clears as the virus will no longer be present.
  • However, antibodies developed in response to the coronavirus infection will be present in the blood for a longer duration and hence the ELISA test can help detect past infection.

About National Institute of Virology

  • The National Institute of Virology is one of the major Institutes of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It was established at Pune (Maharashtra) in 1952 as Virus Research Centre (VRC) under the auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF), USA.
  • It was an outcome of the global programme of the RF for investigating the Arthropod Borne viruses.
  • The RF withdrew its support in 1967 and since then the Institute is entirely funded by the ICMR.
  • The Institute was designated as one of the collaborating laboratories of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1967 and it started functioning as the regional centre of the WHO for South-East Asia for arbovirus studies from 1969.
  • In view of its expanded scope and activities, the VRC was re-designated as the National Institute of Virology (NIV) in 1978.

 

 

7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC) has recommended to ban on streptomycin and tetracycline.
  2. Streptomycin has important use for previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 2 only

      (c) 1 and 2

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is incorrect: Registration Committee (RC) under the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC) has recommended to ban the use of antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline.
  2. Statement 2 is correct: Streptomycin has important use for previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients

 

For More Information Read the following

 

Ban on TB Drugs on crops

  • Recently, the Registration Committee (RC) under the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC) has recommended to ban the use of antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline.

More Information

  • The RC recommended to ban antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline with immediate effect on crops where other options are available for bacterial disease control.
  • Where no alternatives are available, use of these antibiotics should be phased out by 2022-end.
  • Till then, the antibiotics could be used on crops strictly as per the label claim i.e. streptomycin sulphate (9%) and tetracycline hydrochloride (1%).
  • The RC acknowledged that diseases in crops can be managed by using integrated pest management and other practices.

Streptomycin

  • Streptomycin has important use for previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients.
  • It is also used in multidrug-resistant TB patients and in certain cases of TB meningitis (brain TB).
  • Although streptocycline use is allowed for eight crops by the CIBRC, it was found to be used on many more crops in practice.
  • Exposure to antibiotics like Streptomycin can lead to development of antibiotic resistance in humans and animals.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognises streptomycin as a critically important medicine for human use.

 

 

8. Consider the following statements about SwasthVayu:

  1. The system has been certified for safety and performance by NABL accredited agencies with NITI Aayog and Health Ministry.
  2. The system has some advantages but as it is very expensive resulted in big disadvantage.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 and 2

      (b) 1 only

      (c) 2 only

      (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer:  (d)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is incorrect: The system has been certified for safety and performance by NABL accredited agencies
  2. Statement 2 is incorrect: The major advantage of this machine is that it is simple to use without any specialised nursing, cost effective, compact and configured with majority of indigenous components

 

For More Information Read the following

SwasthVayu

  • CSIR – National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) Bangalore, a constituent of lab of CSIR has developed a Non Invasive BiPAP Ventilator in a record time of 36 days to treat COVID-19 patients.

Information

  • BiPAP Non-Invasive ventilator is a microcontroller-based precise closed-loop adaptive control system with a built-in biocompatible “3D printed manifold & coupler” with HEPA filter (Highly Efficient Particulate Air Filter).
  • These unique features help to alleviate the fear of the virus spread. It has features like Spontaneous, CPAP, Timed, AUTO BIPAP modes with provision to connect Oxygen concentrator or Enrichment unit externally. 
  • The system has been certified for safety and performance by NABL accredited agencies. The system has undergone stringent biomedical tests and beta clinical trials at NAL Health Centre.

Significance

  • The major advantage of this machine is that it is simple to use without any specialised nursing, cost effective, compact and configured with majority of indigenous components.
  • This is ideal for treating COVID -19 patients in Wards, Make shift Hospitals, dispensaries and home in current Indian COVID 19 scenario.

 

 

9. ELISA is an acronym of which of the following :

      (a) The enzyme-level  immunosorbent assay

      (b) The enzyme-linked immunity assay

      (c) The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

      (d) The enzyme-linked immunosorbent area

Answer: (c)

Explanation:

The option (c) is correct

 For More Information Read the following

COVID Kavach Elisa

  • National Institute of Virology (NIV) at Pune has developed and validated the indigenous IgG ELISA test “COVID KAVACH ELISA” for antibody detection for COVID-19.

More Information

  • The robust indigenous IgG ELISA test for antibody will play a critical role in surveillance of proportion of population exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus infection.
  • The test kit has the advantage of testing 90 samples together in a single run of 2.5 hours, so that healthcare professionals can proceed quickly with necessary next steps.
  • This kit was validated at two sites in Mumbai and has high sensitivity and accuracy .
  • The ELISA-based testing is easily possible even at district level.
  • Developed in a month’s time, the testing kit would help to study the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the Indian population.
  • It is cost-effective, sensitive, rapid, and a large number of samples can be tested at any level of clinical setting, public health centers and hospitals.
  • There are also minimal bio-safety and bio-security requirements for the test as compared to the real-time RT-PCR test.

ELISA Test

  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a commonly used analytical biochemistry assay, first described by Engvall and Perlmann in 1971.
  • ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology, and biotechnology, as well as a quality control check in various industries.
  • In the simplest form of an ELISA, antigens from the sample are attached to a surface.
  • Then, a matching antibody is applied over the surface so it can bind to the antigen.
  • This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step, a substance containing the enzyme’s substrate is added.
  • The subsequent reaction produces a detectable signal, most commonly a color change.
  • Because the ELISA can be performed to evaluate either the presence of antigen or the presence of antibody in a sample, it is a useful tool for determining serum antibody concentrations such as with the HIV test or West Nile virus.
  • It has also found applications in the food industry in detecting potential food allergens, such as milk, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, and eggs and as serological blood test for coeliac disease.
  • ELISA test is also used to detect various kind of diseases, such as dengue, malaria, Chagas disease, Johne’s disease, and others such as
  1. Detection of Mycobacterium antibodies in tuberculosis
  2. Detection of rotavirus in feces
  3. Detection of hepatitis B markers in serum
  4. Detection of hepatitis C markers in serum
  5. Detection of enterotoxin of E. coli in feces

Detection of HIV antibodies in blood samples

 

10. Consider the following statements about Chitra GeneLAMP-N:

  1. It is a diagnostic test kit that can confirm COVID-19 in 2 hours.
  2. It is one of the very expensive kit to tackle the virus.
  3. It is developed by IIMS.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

      (a) 1 only

      (b) 3 only

      (c) 1 and 3

      (d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

  1. Statement 1 is correct: is a diagnostic test kit that can confirm COVID-19 in 2 hours
  2. Statement 2 is incorrect: at low cost
  3. Statement 3 is incorrect: developed by a laboratory funded by the Department of Science and Technology

For More Information Read the following

Virus diagnostic test may be delayed

  • A promising technology developed by a laboratory funded by the Department of Science and Technology to accelerate COVID-19 testing in India may be delayed for several more weeks.
  • The Chitra GeneLAMP-N, developed by the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Thiruvananthapuram, needs more confirmatory testing and changes in its configuration.

Chitra GeneLAMP-N:

  • Chitra GeneLAMP-N is a diagnostic test kit that can confirm COVID-19 in 2 hours at low cost.
  • The results can be read from the machine from the change in fluorescence.
    • Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

How does RT-LAMP work?

  • The confirmatory diagnostic test detects the N Gene of SARS- COV2 using reverse transcriptase loop-mediated amplification of viral nucleic acid (RT-LAMP).
  • The test kit is highly specific for SARS-CoV-2 N-gene and can detect two regions of the gene.
  • It is a technique for the amplification of RNA. It is used in the detection of viruses.
  • In this method, a DNA copy of the viral RNA is generated by reverse transcriptase, and then isothermal amplification is carried out to increase the amount of total DNA.

What is RT-PCR?

  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique combining reverse transcription of RNA into DNA (in this context called complementary DNA or cDNA) and amplification of specific DNA targets using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Reverse Transcription is the process in cells by which an enzyme makes a copy of DNA from RNA.
  • The enzyme that makes the DNA copy is called reverse transcriptase and is found in retroviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • RT-PCR is primarily used to measure the amount of a specific RNA

Issue:

  • The objective of LAMP, like that of RT-PCR tests, is the same: to detect the presence of viral RNA.
  • Both achieve this via a series of chemical transformations.
  • The LAMP method is said to be faster but is a relatively newer technology, more complicated in its design and has not been tested extensively for COVID-19 detection.
  • Most RT-PCR kits focus on two different genes, the E (envelope) gene and the RdRP (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) gene.
  • The World Health Organization recommends an E and RdRP test, while the U.S.’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires an N gene test.
    • The N gene test is a confirmatory test and widely employed in Germany and China, among other countries. However, the design of it is complicated and can be expensive.
    • The CDC protocol says three regions of the N gene must be analysed but the Chitra-model tests two to confirm the identity of the virus.
  • Though the Chitra test passed an initial assessment by the National Institute of Virology in Alappuzha, a subsequent assessment showed that it was not performing as accurately as desired.

 

 

 

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